George washington inauguration

President's Timeline

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    Washington Presidency

  • Political-Judiciary Act of 1789

    Act of Congress that implemeted the judiciary clause of the Consitituion by establishing the Supreme Courtand a system of lower federal courts.
  • Economic- Fiscal Program

    Hamilton's Fiscal Program, which included establishing tariffs and the National Bank, was accepted by Washington. This also included incurring a national debt and paying it off to gain credit.
  • Foreign Policy- Neutrality

    Washington wanted to practice neutrality within the country in order to prevent conflict with foreign nationos, such as those in Europe.
  • Social- Battle of Fallen Timbers

    Fought in the Maumee country of northern Ohio, General Anthony Wayne crushed the Indian Confederacy. The victory set the stage for the Treaty of Greenville.
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  • Social Issue - Alien and Sedition Acts

    The Alien and Sedition Acts were four bills passed in 1798 by the Federalists in the 5th United States Congress in the aftermath of the French Revolution and during an undeclared naval war with France, later known as the Quasi-War.
  • Foreign Policy Issue - Quasi War

    The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought mostly at sea between the United States and the French Republic from 1798 to 1800.
  • Political Issue - Midnight Judges

    President Adams quickly filled as many of the newly created circuit judgeships as possible. The new judges were known as the Midnight Judges because Adams was said to be signing their appointments at midnight prior to President Thomas Jefferson's inauguration.
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  • Political- Marbury vs. Madison

    After Adams and the Midnight Judges, Jefferson wanted such activities to stop. However, a judge who was supposed to be an appointed official did not receive his position and sued. The case of Marbury vs. Madison set the precedent of Judicial Review.
  • Foreign Policy- Barbary Pirates

    Jefferson declared war on the Barbary Pirates and the invasive actions on the U.S merchant ships. This caused the U.S to have a larger Navy, which caused Jefferson to go back on wanting a small army.
  • Social- A Friendly Indian Policy

    Jefferson wanted Indians to assimilate into the white culture, so he didn't approve of American aggressiveness to the Indians.
  • Economic- Embargo Act

    Jefferson issued the Embargo Act to keep British ships from impressing American sailors.
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  • Social Issue - Wilkinson affair

    Wilkinson proved to be an incompetent general; many soldiers complained that he was ineffectual: their tents were defective, and they became sick by malaria, dysentery, and scurvy; dozens died daily.
  • Foreign Policy - Second Barbary War

    in 1815, the United States entered the Second Barbary War, to end the American practice of paying tribute to the pirate states of North Africa in the Mediterranean. It marked the beginning of the end of the age of piracy in that region. With peace finally established, Americans believed they had secured a solid independence from Britain.
  • Economic Policy - First Bank of the US

    s the absence of a national bank made war with Britain very difficult to finance, in 1814 Congress passed a bill chartering a second national bank. Madison vetoed it. In 1816, Congress passed another bill to charter a second national bank; Madison signed the act, having learned the bank was needed from the war with Britain.
  • Political Policy - State Admittance

    Admitted Louisiana - April 30, 1812, and Indiana – December 11, 1816
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  • Social Issue - Era of Good Feelings

    The Era of Good Feelings marked a period in the political history of the United States that reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Foreign Policy - Monroe Doctrine

    It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention.
  • Economic Policy - Cumberland Road

    The Cumberland Road was the first major improved highway in the United States to be built by the federal government. The approximately 620-mile long National Road provided a connection between the Potomac and Ohio Rivers and a gateway to the West for thousands of settlers.
  • Political- Corrupt Bargain

    During the Election of 1824, John Quincy Adams made a deal with Henry Clay where Clay would sway the House of Representatives to Adams's favor. This would cause Adams to win the presidency and Clay to be his Secretary of State.
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  • Foreign Policy- Treaties of Recriprocity

    Adams made treaties in order to have good relations. These countries include Denmark, Mexico, the Hanseatic League, the Scandinavian countries, Prussia and Austria.
  • Economic- Internal Improvements

    JQA wanted to connect certain sections of the U.S, so the federal governemt spent funds to start internal improvements.
  • Social- Internal Improvements

    JQa's internal improvements also allowed easier mobility between states, so people could move towards jobs and the city.
  • Social Issue - Spoils System

    When Jackson became President, he implemented the theory of rotation in office by political appointments, declaring it "a leading principle in the republican creed."
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  • Political Policy - Electoral College

    Jackson repeatedly called for the abolition of the Electoral College by constitutional amendment in his annual messages to Congress as President.
  • Foreign Policy - Nullification Crisis

    The Nullification Crisis was a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by South Carolina's 1832 Ordinance of Nullification. This ordinance declared by the power of the State that the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of South Carolina.
  • Economic Policy - Federal Debt

    In January 1835, Jackson paid off the entire national debt, the only time in U.S. history that has been accomplished. The accomplishment was short lived. A severe depression from 1837 to 1844 caused a tenfold increase in national debt within its first year.
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  • Social- Denying Texas

    Van Buren denied Texas' formal request to join the United States. This was to keep harmony within the states as the Panic continued.
  • Economic- Independent Treasury

    It gave the Treasury control of all federal funds and had a legal tender clause that required all payments to be made in specie.
  • Foreign Policy- Amistad

    Van Buren sided with the Spanish government to free the ship Amistad and the slaves held captive within.
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  • Shortest American Presidency

    Williams Henry Harrison was the first president to die in office and has the shortest presidency length to this day.
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  • Social - Brought into Office

    On 1 June, impressed by his authoritative actions, both houses of Congress passed resolutions declaring Tyler the 10th President of the United States. Tyler had thus become the first U.S. Vice President to assume the office of President upon the death of the incumbent, establishing a precedent that would be followed seven times in the 19th and 20th centuries.
  • Economic Policy

    When it came to the great banking question, the former Democratic President was at odds with the Congressional Whigs. Twice he vetoed Clay's legislation for a national banking act following the Panic of 1837.
  • Political - Annexation of Texas

    By January 1844 Upshur told the Texas government that he had found a large majority of Senators in favor of an annexation treaty. The republic remained skeptical, and finalization of the treaty took until the end of February.
  • Foreign Policy

    His presidency was largely continuous with Jackson's earlier efforts to promote American commerce across the Pacific. Eager to compete with Great Britain in international markets, he sent lawyer Caleb Cushing to China, where he negotiated the terms of the Treaty of Wanghia (1844).
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  • Social- Texas Annexation

    Texas agreed to join the U.S in 1845, which angered Mexico. It eventually led to war.
  • Political- Rivers and Harbors Veto

    Congress passed the Rivers and Harbors bill in 1846 to improve rivers and harbors, but Polk vetoed the bill. This was because Polk believed the bill to be unconstitutional.
  • Foreign Policy- Mexican American War

    War is declared against Mexico after the annexation of Texas, and the war ended in 1848 with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
  • Economic- Independent Treasury System

    Polk approved a law approving the Independent Treasury System, under which government funds were held in the Treasury and not in banks or other financial institutions. This established independent treasury deposit offices, separate from private or state banks, to receive all government funds.