presidental timetoast

  • Period: to

    George Washington

    1.George Washington was born at his family's plantation on Popes Creek in Westmoreland County, Virginia, on 2/22/1732, to Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His education is elementary and limited secondary. He was was assigned command of the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War. He was later elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and appointed as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. he had stepchildren, and step-grandchildren and his wife Martha Washington.
  • Congress enacts tariff

    Congress, led by Representative James Madison, enacts the first protective tariff. Madison consulted with President Washington about the need for the measure.
  • March 26, 1790 First naturalization law

    Congress passes the United States' first naturalization law, establishing terms of citizenship.
  • Copyright law

    President Washington signs the first United States copyright law.
  • First revenue law

    Congress approves its first internal revenue law, creating fourteen revenue districts and placing a tax on all distilled spirits.
  • Ratifying the Bill of Rights

    The states officially ratify the first ten amendments to the Constitution, also known as the Bill of Rights. President Washington had called for their ratification in his first inaugural address.
  • Warships

    Congress responds to British aggression by authorizing the production of six warships (March 11) and announcing a sixty-day embargo on American shipping (March 26). The Washington administration supports both measures.
  • Farmers' rebellion

    Farmers in western Pennsylvania rebel over the strict enforcement of an excise tax on whiskey passed in 1791.
  • Battle of Fallen Timbers

    General Anthony Wayne defeats an Indian force numbering more than 1,000 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The victory helps open the Ohio territory for American settlement and is a defeat for Britain, which had allied with the Native Americans in the region.
  • Jay Treaty

    American statesman John Jay signed the Amity, Commerce, and Navigation Treaty with Britain. The treaty, now known as Jay's Treaty, was designed to resolve issues between the United States and Britain.
  • Treaty of San Lorenzo

    The United States signs the Treaty of San Lorenzo with Spain, granting Americans the right to ship goods through the port of New Orleans without having to pay duties to the Spanish Government.
  • Period: to

    John Adams

    Adams was born in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1735.he is a Harvard educated lawyer. During the Revolutionary War he served in France and Holland in diplomatic roles, and helped negotiate the treaty of peace. he became identified with the patriot cause; a delegate he led in the movement for independence. He served two terms as vice president before being a president.
    left office.
  • Special session

    Adams calls the first special session of Congress to debate the mounting crisis in French-Amer
  • Negotiating with France

    Adams appoints a three man commission, composed of Charles C. Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry, and John Marshall, to negotiate a settlement with France.
  • The Eleventh Amendment

    The Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution of the United States is declared in full force by President Adams. It stipulates that federal courts shall not have the jurisdiction over litigation between individuals from one state against individuals from another state.
  • Preparing for war

    Congress empowers Adams to enlist 10,000 men for service in case of a declaration of war or invasion of the country's domain. It also authorizes Adams to instruct commanders of ships-of-war to seize armed French vessels praying upon or attacking American merchantmen about the coast.
  • Federal Bankruptcy Act

    Congress passes and Adams signs into law the Federal Bankruptcy Act, providing merchants and traders protection from debtors.
  • Dividing the Northwest Territory

    Congress passes an act dividing the Northwest Territory into two parts, with the border between them running north from the junction of the Ohio and Kentucky Rivers. The western part of the territory will be known as the Indiana Territory while the eastern half will retain the name Northwest Territory.
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    Thomas Jefferson

    He was born in 1743 in Albemarle County, In 1772 he married Martha Wayles Skelton .he wrote a bill establishing religious freedom, enacted in 1786.hrough a flaw in the Constitution, he became Vice President, although an opponent of President Adam. he opposed a strong centralized Government and championed the rights of states.
  • The United States and Britain convene

    The United States and Britain conclude a convention regarding Jay's Treaty of 1794 to resolve some outstanding issues about details in the treaty. A commission rules that the United States owes £600,000 to British citizens in settlement of Revolutionary War claims.
  • War with Tripoli

    Congress recognizes the War with Tripoli, authorizing the arming of merchant ships to ward off attacks.
  • Excise taxes repealed

    Infamous excise taxes on commodities such as whiskey are repealed.
  • Enabling Act

    President Jefferson signs the Enabling Act, establishing procedures under which territories organized under the Ordinance of 1787 can become a state. The law effectively authorizes people of the Ohio territory to hold a convention and frame a constitution.
  • Monroe appointed minister to France and Spain

    Jefferson appoints James Monroe minister to France and Spain, instructing him to purchase New Orleans and East and West Florida. Napoleon informs U.S. minister in Paris Robert Livingston that France will be willing to sell the entire Louisiana territory, much to his surprise.
  • Congress passes military organization

    Congress passes legislation providing for a military organizational structure.
  • Jefferson warns Americans

    In Washington, D.C., President Jefferson publicly warns citizens not to take part in a plot to invade Spanish territory. Jefferson issues this warning after having been told of Aaron Burr's subversive activities with respect to annexing Spanish terr
  • Jefferson asks for ban on slave trade

    Jefferson appeals to Congress asking for a ban on the slave trade.
  • Slave trade ban official

    The law officially banning the slave trade goes into effect.
  • Sixth presidential election

    The sixth presidential election for President of the United States is held.
  • Period: to

    James Madison

    James Madison was born on March 16, 1751, in Virginia, United States. He attended the College of New Jersey . Madison did not serve in the military due to poor health.He was active in politics and served in the Virginia state government during the war.He was U.S. Representative from Virginia (1789–1797).He married Dolley Payne Todd in 1794. He played a crucial role in drafting the U.S. Constitution and was one of its most vocal proponents during the ratification process.
  • Congress repeals the Embargo Act

    After the U.S. economy suffers at the hands of the embargo, Congress repeals the Embargo Act. Jefferson signs the Non-Intercourse Act the same day, closing U.S. ports only to France and England. Trade with the two countries is to be resumed when they agreed to respect the rights of U.S. citizens and vessels.
  • Trade wars

    Under the terms of Macon's Bill Number 2, Madison accepts a French offer to stop confiscation of American supplies and ships. In February 1811, he declares a halt in trade with Britain unless the Orders are repealed. Undeterred, Britain vows to continue to seize American ships until France ends its trade restrictions.
  • Bank of the United States

    The Bank of the United States closes. Treasury Secretary Gallatin urges Congress to extend its charter but fails to convince members concerned with the large British interest in the Bank.
  • U.S Navy

    The House refuses to enlarge the Navy.
  • Relations with Canada

    Madison shares the letters of John Henry, agent for governor of Canada, with Congress, having purchased the letters the previous month for $50,000. The documents indicate that the governor general of Canada is inciting rebellion in New England.
  • Amendment for national bank

    James Jackson of Virginia introduces a constitutional amendment in the House authorizing the establishment of a national bank, but Congress postpones consideration.
  • Campbell appointed Secretary of Treasury

    George Washington Campbell of Tennessee replaces Gallatin as Secretary of the Treasury.
  • Invasion of Canada

    Madison and his cabinet decide to continue with the attempted invasion of Canada.
  • End of the War of 1812

    News arrives of the December 1814 Treaty of Ghent that ends the War of 1812. On February 15, Congress appropriates $500,000 for the reconstruction of federal buildings. The Senate ratifies the Treaty of Ghent on February 16.
  • Indiana becomes a state

    Madison signs a bill admitting Indiana to statehood.
  • Period: to

    James Monroe

    James Monroe was born on April 28, 1758, in Virginia, United States. He attended the College of William and Mary in Virginia. He served as an officer under General George Washington and was wounded at the Battle of Trenton in 1776.One of the Previous Offices Held was
    U.S. Senator from Virginia (1790–1794). Monroe married Elizabeth Kortright in 1786.Monroe played a crucial role in negotiating the Louisiana Purchase while serving as U.S. Minister to France.
  • Aguirre Mission

    Monroe enunciates a policy of neutrality towards the Latin American colonies seeking independence. He also advocates a controversial fact-finding mission, the Aguirre Mission, to Buenos Aires that could be construed as recognition for the colony's sovereignty.
  • Mississippi becomes a state

    Mississippi becomes the twentieth state in the Union.
  • Illinois becomes a state

    Illinois is admitted as the twenty-first state of the Union.
  • Alabama becomes a state

    Alabama becomes the twenty-second state of the Unio
  • Maine becomes a state

    Maine is admitted as the twenty-third state of the Union.
  • Missouri becomes a state

    Missouri is admitted as the twenty-fourth state of the Union.
  • No-transfer" principle

    In a letter to Richard Rush, British foreign secretary George Canning discreetly contemplates recognition of what is referred to as the “no-transfer” principle advocated by the United States. This proposal requires European powers to abstain from exchanging colonies or acquiring new possessions from Spain.
  • Cherokee chiefs arrive in Washington

    Cherokee chiefs arrive in Washington, D.C., to object to the government's removal policies and plead for their sovereign right to stay in Georgia. Originally siding with the Cherokee, Monroe will later reverse his stance on the issue.
  • General Survey Bill

    Monroe signs the General Survey Bill, departing from his opposition to congressionally sponsored internal improvements. The United States Army Corps of Engineers prepare to produce surveys, plans, and estimates to improve navigation. Monroe subsequently purchases 1,500 shares of stock in the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Co. for $300,000.
  • Tariff of 1824

    Monroe signs the Tariff of 1824 into law, implementing protectionist measures in support of local manufactures and goods. Complaints arise in the South with cotton-growers fearful of British retaliation for the increase in price. Northern manufacturers are pleased with the law.
  • Period: to

    John Quincy Adams

    John Quincy Adams was born on July 11, 1767, in Massachusetts, United States. He attended Harvard University, where he graduated in 1787. John Quincy Adams did not serve in the military.he was Minister to the Netherlands (1794–1797).He was the son of John Adams, the second President of the United States, and Abigail Adams. He married Louisa Catherine Johnson in 1797, - John Quincy Adams played a significant role in negotiating the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812.
  • Tennessee Legislature nominates Jackson

    The Tennessee legislature nominates Andrew Jackson their presidential challenger for the 1828 election.
  • Military Training Manuals Created

    Military standardization and integration of Union and state militias is a foremost concern during the Adams administration. In response to a proposal by the secretary of war to revamp military organization and seniority systems, a joint House and Senate resolution calls for the production and dispersal of training manuals.
  • Jefferson and Adams Die

    Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, founding fathers and former Presidents, both die.
  • Resolution of war damages

    Under the mediation of Czar Nicholas I, President Adams finalizes a settlement with the British over restitution for damages incurred during the War of 1812, left unresolved by the Treaty of Ghent.
  • Mexican Boundary settlement

    Joel Poinsett accedes to a Mexican boundary settlement on behalf of the United States. This concludes a slew of unsuccessful efforts by Adams to negotiate more favorable borders than the existing Sabine River.
  • Period: to

    Andrew Jackson

    Andrew Jackson was born on March 15, 1767, in the Waxhaw's region on the border of North and South Carolina.
    . He largely educated himself through reading and studying law. He served as a major general in the Tennessee militia, he achieved a decisive victory against British forces in the War of 1812. He was U.S. House of Representatives (1796–1797). Andrew Jackson married Rachel Donelson Robards in 1791.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Congress passes the Indian Removal Act, sanctioning the forcible relocation of Creek, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Choctaw, and Seminole tribes to land allotments west of the Mississippi river. Ninety-four removal treaties follow the bill's enactment. From 1835 to 1838, Cherokee and Creek are forcibly removed from the Southeast onto reservations. Nearly one quarter die along what became known as the “Trail of Tears.”
  • Peggy Eaton Affair

    Jackson reshuffles his cabinet following the divisive and ongoing “Peggy Eaton Affair.” The woman's first husband supposedly committed suicide after discovering her dalliance with Tennessee senator John Eaton, whom Jackson later names secretary of war. Members of Jackson's inner circle and their wives feud over accusations about the woman's alleged behavior. Jackson supports the Eatons and is outraged by the charges.
  • French spoliation claims

    The French government agrees to a treaty settling spoliation claims by the United States dating back to the Napoleonic Wars. France agrees to pay $5 million but initially declines to make the payment. When U.S. representatives warn the French of American naval superiority, monies flow from French to U.S. coffers, beginning in 1836
  • Jackson wins reelection

    Running on the Democratic ticket, Jackson wins reelection to the presidency, soundly defeating Henry Clay and William Wirt. Jackson scores an impressive victory, amassing 219 electoral votes to Clay's 49. The election marks the entrance of third parties onto the national scene, with Wirt running on the Anti-Masonic ticket. It also features the use of national nominating committees.
  • Ordinance of Nullification

    A South Carolina state convention adopts the Ordinance of Nullification, an decree nullifying congressional acts involving duties and imposts on the importation of foreign commodities. Calhoun resigns as vice president and immediately takes his elected position as senator. No other states join South Carolina in this action
  • Force Bill

    Pressed by Jackson, Congress passes the Force Bill, authorizing Jackson's use of the army to gain compliance for federal law in South Carolina. Vice President Calhoun voices his dissent.
  • Jackson commissions Edmund Roberts

    Jackson commissions Edmund Roberts as a “special agent” of the United States to negotiate commercial trade treaties abroad. Roberts's efforts result in the first treaties between the United States and a number of far eastern governments, including Siam (now Thailand).
  • Jackson terminates national debt

    Jackson announces he will terminate the national debt, freeing the United States of foreign and domestic obligations beyond the reserves of the Treasury.
  • Texas declares independence

    In Washington, D.C., the delegates of the people of Texas officially and unanimously declare their independence.
  • Specie Circular

    Jackson, along with Treasury Secretary Levi Woodbury, introduces the Specie Circular, revealing that the government will accept only gold and silver for land payments. The act serves as an attempt to check rising inflation precipitated by unprecedented land speculation and irresponsible lending.
  • Period: to

    Martin Van Buren

    Martin Van Buren was born on December 5, 1782, in New York, United States. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1803. He did not have a formal college education.
    Military Service: He did not serve in the military.He was a New York State Senator (1812–1820)Vice President of the United States (1833–1837) under President Andrew Jackson. Martin Van Buren married Hannah Hoes in
  • The Panic of 1837

    The Panic of 1837 begins in New York when banks first suspend payments of specie. Following the collapse of credit facility, banks can no longer redeem currency notes in gold and silver. Compounding the problem, a depression in England causes the price of cotton to drop and ends British loans to the United States. An already unstable economy now suffers from additional debts and unemployment.
  • Van Buren opposes the annexation of Texas

    Van Buren announces his opposition to the annexation of Texas, primarily to make possible the ensuing peace with Mexico but also to alleviate abolitionist concerns at home.
  • Canadian militia seizes Caroline

    Britain orders the Canadian militia to seize the American steamship Caroline, which had been supplying Canadian rebels, on the Niagara River. One American is killed, and several are wounded.
  • Van Buren remains neutral

    Van Buren criticizes the British but maintains a neutral stance in the conflict.
  • Arbitration commission

    Van Buren agrees on the principle of forming an arbitration commission to settle disputed claims with Mexico.
  • Period: to

    John Tyler

    John Tyler was born on March 29, 1790, in Charles City County, Virginia, United States.He attended the College of William and Mary where he graduated in 1807. He did not serve in the military.He was a Vice President of the United States (1841) under President William Henry Harrison.he married , Julia Gardiner Tyler, in 1844.Major achievements of Tyler's presidency was the annexation of Texas in 1845, though it was finalized after he left office.
  • William Henry Harrison inaugurated

    William Henry Harrison inaugurated as the ninth President of the United States.
  • Period: to

    William Henry Harrison

    William Henry Harrison was born on February 9, 1773, in Virginia, United States. Harrison attended Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia for a brief period but did not graduate.
    Harrison had a notable military career. He served as an ensign in the U.S. Army.He was the Minister to the Ottoman Empire (1841) William Henry Harrison married Anna Tuthill Symmes in 1795.He served as the 9th President of the United States for only 31 days, from March 4, 1841- April 4, 1841.
  • President Harrison Dies

    On April 4, 1841, President William Henry Harrison died of pneumonia, exactly one month after his inauguration as the ninth President of the United States
  • Commonwealth v. Hunt

    The Massachusetts Supreme Court establishes the legality of labor unions, including the right for workers to strike, in the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt.
  • The Democrats gain majority

    In the congressional elections, the Democrats gain a majority over the Whigs in the House of Representatives, while at the same time defending their majority in the Senate.
  • First telegraph line completed

    The first telegraph line in the United States is completed between Washington, D.C., and Baltimore.
  • John Tyler marries Julia Gardiner

    On June 26, 1844, President John Tyler married Julia Gardiner in a private ceremony at a New York City Episcopal church. It was the first time a President had wed while in office, and two days later the Tylers held a reception in the Blue Room of the White House to introduce the country to its new First Lady.
  • James K. Polk elected

    James K. Polk is elected as the eleventh President of the United States on promises to “re-annex” Texas and “re-occupy” Oregon
  • Period: to

    James K. Polk

    James Knox Polk was born on November 2, 1795, in Pineville, North Carolina, United States. He graduated with honors from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1818.He did not serve in the military.he was Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Tennessee (1825–1839).He married Sarah Childress Polk in 1824. He pledged during his campaign to serve only one term as president, and he kept that promise.
  • Discouraging Mexican invasion

    General Zachary Taylor receives orders from Polk to move his troops from Fort Jesup in Louisiana to a position “on or near the Rio Grande” in Texas to discourage a Mexican invasion.
  • The Naval Academy opens

    Under the direction of Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, the Naval Academy opens at Annapolis, Maryland.
  • Mormon migration to Utah

    The Mormon migration to Utah, led by Brigham Young, begins.
  • Bear Flag Revolt

    In the Bear Flag Revolt, approximately thirty American settlers (anticipating the Mexican War) take over a small Mexican garrison in Sonoma, California, and declare California a free and independent republic.
  • Tariff of 1846

    Congress passes the Tariff of 1846, a key part of President's Polk's domestic agenda. Known as the “Walker Tariff,” after Polk's secretary of the Treasury, Robert J. Walker, the Tariff of 1846 lowers rates toward revenue-only levels, although a few items remain protected
  • Iowa becomes a state

    Iowa is admitted as a free state, making it the twenty-ninth state in the Union.
  • Period: to

    Zachary Taylor

    Zachary Taylor was born on November 24, 1784, in Virginia, United States.He received a limited formal education and was mostly self-taught. He served in the U.S. Army for over 40 years, rising through the ranks to become a major general.He married Margaret Mackall Smith in 1810.. He faced significant challenges related to the debate over slavery and the question of whether newly acquired territories from the Mexican-American War would allow slavery.
  • Zachary Taylor inaugurated

    Zachary Taylor is inaugurated as the twelfth President of the United States.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Congress debates solutions to the issue of slavery's possible expansion into the territories won in the Mexican War. Henry Clay proposes the Compromise of 1850, and Daniel Webster with Stephen Douglas lead its supporters against the measure's opponents who coalesce around John C. Calhoun of South Carolina
  • Zachary Taylor dies

    in July 9, 1850, President Zachary Taylor died after a brief illness. He had attended a ceremony at the unfinished Washington Monument on July 4. For several hours, the President sat under the blazing sun, listening to various speakers, before he took a walk by the Potomac River and retired to the White House around 4:00pm. There he drank iced water and chilled milk and ate cherries and other fruits. Taylor did not feel well that evening, but conducted business the next day.
  • Period: to

    Millard Fillmore

    Millard Fillmore was born on January 7, 1800, in New York, United States He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1823. He was a Vice President of the United States (1849–1853) under President Zachary Taylor: He married Abigail Powers in 1826. One of the most significant events during Fillmore's presidency was the passage of the Compromise of 1850
  • Compromise of 1850 passes

    Congress passes the Compromise of 1850, written by Kentucky senator Henry Clay. California is admitted as a free state, the Utah and New Mexico territories are to be organized on the principle of “popular sovereignty,” and the slave trade is to be abolished in Washington, D.C.
  • National women's rights convention

    Headed by feminists and abolitionists, a national women's rights convention is held in Worcester, Massachusetts, and is attended by delegates from nine states. Chosen for its accessibility by rail, the Worcester convention attracts hundreds of people. Among the main topics, participants discuss employment opportunities, political and legal rights, property rights after marriage, and educational opportunities for women, especially in medicine.
  • Treaty with El Salvador

    Acting on long-held interest in gaining influence in Central America, the United States ratifies its first commercial treaty with El Salvador.
  • Gold discovered in Oregon

    Gold is found in Oregon along the Rogue River, a prospective new territory for the California gold rushers of 1849. The discovery leads to the arrival of thousands of individuals in search of the metal.
  • Democrats gain seats

    In Congressional elections, Democrats gain three Senate seats for a 38-22 majority over the Whigs. The Democrats also pick up 19 seats in the House for a 159-71 majority. Meanwhile, following Pierce's election over the Whig candidate Scott, the Whig Party splits with Southern Whigs defecting and abstaining to protest the party's antislavery leadership.
  • Period: to

    Franklin Pierce

    Franklin Pierce was born on November 23, 1804, in New Hampshire, United States. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1827. Franklin Pierce served in the military during the Mexican-American War. He was a Brigadier General in the U.S. Army during the Mexican-American War.He married Jane Means Appleton in 1834. Franklin Pierce's presidency was marked by the growing sectional tensions over slavery, leading up to the Civil War.
  • Treaty of Kanagawa

    After nearly three centuries of Japanese isolation, Commodore Matthew Perry -- first ordered to Japan by President Fillmore -- signs the Treaty of Kanagawa, marking the beginning of the Pacific nation's trade with the rest of the world. The United States is permitted a consulate in Japan, and U.S. ships will be allowed to sail into Japanese ports for the purpose of conducting limited trade.
  • Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Society

    The Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Society is founded by Eli Thayer to encourage opponents of slavery to move to Kansas. Thayer, who becomes a U.S. Congressman (Republican) from 1857 to 1861, establishes the society while serving in the state legislature. On February 21, 1855, the society is renamed the New England Emigrant Aid Society.
  • Wakarusa War

    The Wakarusa War threatens Lawrence, Kansas. Fifteen hundred Border Ruffians attack the town, only to retreat after finding it defended by Free State forces. Lawrence -- originally named Wakarusa -- becomes the center of Free-State activities after being founded by the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Society.
  • Border Ruffians attack Lawrence, Kansas

    Pro-slavery forces and Border Ruffians, including Sheriff Jones of Douglas County and his followers, lead another attack on Lawrence, Kansas. One person dies as the band burns a hotel and two newspaper offices.
  • Know-Nothing Party nominates Millard Fillmore

    The anti-slavery section of the Know-Nothing Party nominates former President Millard Fillmore for President and Andrew Jackson Donelson for vice president.
  • Period: to

    James Buchanan

    James Buchanan was born on April 23, 1791, in Pennsylvania, United States. He then studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1812. James Buchanan did not serve in the military.He was U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania (1834–1845)J.He never married. Buchanan's handling of the secession crisis in the lead-up to the Civil War has been widely criticized. Many historians view his presidency as ineffective in preventing the outbreak of the conflict.
  • English Bill Passed

    Congress passes the English Bill after Representative William Hayden English (Democrat-Indiana) strikes a compromise between the House and Senate bills on the admission of Kansas to the Union. The bill effectively resubmits the Lecompton Constitution to Kansas voters with the attached incentive of land if ratified.
  • Minnesota Joins Union

    A Republican-controlled Congress admits Minnesota to the Union as the thirty-second state (and a free one). Congressional approval had been delayed for several months due to the Kansas controversy.
  • Southern Commercial Convention

    The Southern Commercial Convention meets in Vicksburg, Mississippi, and Southern slave owners advocate for the reopening of the African slave trade. A congressional act banned the slave trade in 1808.
  • Kansas Constitution Ratified

    The Kansas Constitution is ratified as an antislavery document by an overwhelming popular vote. A provisional state government is elected in December.
  • Constitutional Union Party Nominates Bell

    The Constitutional Union Party, comprised of remnants from the Whig and American parties, nominates John Bell for the presidency and Edward Everett for the vice presidency.
  • Democrats Nominate Douglas

    The Democratic Party meets again in Baltimore and nominates Stephen Douglas for the presidency and Herschel Johnson for the vice presidency.
  • Period: to

    Abraham Lincoln

    Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, in Kentucky. He was largely self-taught and had a strong interest in learning.He served in the Illinois Militia during the Black Hawk War in 1832. He was a Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Illinois (1847–1849).Abraham Lincoln married Mary Todd on November 4, 1842.He issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863,declaring that all enslaved people in Confederate-held territory were to be set free.
  • Confederate Congress adopts Confederate Constitution

    The Confederate Congress unanimously adopts the Confederate Constitution, which declares the sovereignty of states and forbids the passage of any bill which outlaws slavery.
  • Major Anderson surrenders

    Out of supplies and after thirty-three hours under attack, Major Robert Anderson of Fort Sumter surrenders. The federal outpost is evacuated the next day.
  • Lincoln's intentions

    Lincoln announces to his cabinet his intention to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. By this point, he believes the border states will remain in the Union. Lincoln decides to wait to address the nation publicly, however, hoping to introduce his proclamation after a more favorable military battle.
  • Midterm congressional elections

    Midterm congressional elections take place. The Republicans maintain control of both the House of Representatives and the Senate, with a 39-12 majority in Senate and a 103-80 majority in the House.
  • Battle of Chancellorsville

    Near the District of Columbia, in Virginia, the Battle of Chancellorsville takes place. General Lee wins a brilliant victory over Union General Joseph Hooker. Following his success, Lee decides to begin a second invasion into the North.
  • Period: to

    Andrew Johnson

    ]Andrew Johnson was born on December 29, 1808, in, North Carolina, United States.He did not receive a formal education.He served as Military Governor of Tennessee during the war. He was Vice President of the United States (1865) under President Abraham Lincoln.He married Eliza McCardle in 1827. His lenient policies toward the Southern states and his clashes with the Radical Republicans in Congress led to his impeachment by the House of Representatives in 1868.
  • Arresting Confederates

    Johnson issues a proclamation offering rewards for the arrests of Jefferson Davis, Jacob Thompson, and Clement C. Clay, Jr.
  • Celebrations in D.C.

    The close of the Civil War is celebrated in Washington, D.C. Johnson presides over a series of reviews of the Army of the Potomac and the Army of Tennessee.
  • The Fenian Raid and the Battle of Ridgeway

    The Fenian Raid and the Battle of Ridgeway in Canada takes place between Canadian militiamen and members of the Fenian Brotherhood, an Irish-American organization lobbying for a free Ireland. The Brotherhood, founded in New York in 1858, hopes to capture Canada and use it as a bargaining tool against Britain; their attempt fails. Many of the Fenian participants are Civil War veterans.
  • Fourteenth Amendment

    Fourteenth Amendment
    Congress passes and sends the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution to the states for ratification. Not only does the amendment seek to prevent ex-Confederates from holding office, it also establishes the citizenship of African Americans, affirming that “all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States
  • House of Representatives votes to impeach Johnson

    The House of Representatives votes to impeach Johnson, focusing on his breach of the Tenure of Office Act. The 126-47 vote is along party lines.
  • Period: to

    Ulysses S. Grant

    Andrew Johnson was born on December 29, 1808, in North Carolina, United States. He did not receive a formal education. He served as Military Governor of Tennessee during the Civil war He was Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Tennessee (1843–1853). He married Eliza McCardle in 1827. His lenient policies toward the Southern states and his clashes with the Radical Republicans in Congress led to his impeachment by the House of Representatives in 1868.
  • Fifteenth Amendment

    Black male suffrage becomes universal when the Fifteenth Amendment -- stipulating that no state shall deprive any citizen of the right to vote because of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude” -- is adopted with Grant's help and approval. The suffrage amendment is only partially successful. During Reconstruction, black men vote frequently; following Reconstruction, however, whites use discriminatory laws and taxes to disenfranchise black men.
  • Transcontinental Railroad Completed

    On May 10, 1869, the transcontinental railroad was completed when a ceremonial golden spike was driven into the place where the two railroads met. The Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads joined the railroad together in Promontory Point, Utah. Celebrations and special addresses took place across the nation after a telegraph message announced the event to the world.
  • “Black Friday” financial panic

    The “Black Friday” financial panic takes place in New York City. The panic results from the efforts of two railroad entrepreneurs, Jay Gould and James Fisk, Jr., to corner the gold market. Gould and Fisk, along with President Grant's brother-in-law, frame their argument by claiming that if the government refrains from selling gold, its value will increase and improve depressed farm prices.
  • Aims to end segregation

    The administration announces that it will seek to end de jure segregation, or segregation by law, though de facto segregation or segregation in practice is still common.
  • Voting rights and the KKK

    Congress makes it a federal crime to deprive anyone of his civil or political rights by interfering with the right to vote. It is the first of three such Enforcement Acts the legislature will pass. The act is designed to allow the federal government to take action against the Ku Klux Klan when local authorities fail to prosecute crimes. The KKK, organized in 1866 in Pulaski, Tennessee, employs harassment and terror to dissuade African-Americans from voting.
  • The Federal Election Law

    The Federal Election Law passes, calling for federal supervision of elections in cities with populations greater than 20,000. The act is designed to ensure fair treatment of black voters in the South and is the second of three enforcement acts.
  • White League" of Louisiana

    Grant issues a presidential proclamation calling for the dispersal of the rebellious “White League” in Louisiana. Grant sends five thousand troops and three gunboats to New Orleans; the resistance ends two days later. Grant and the Republicans are criticized severely for the intervention.
  • The Women's Christian Temperance Union

    The Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is established in Cleveland, Ohio. The group is founded after a massive movement to protest the traffic of liquor in the Midwest spreads across the country.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1875

    Grant signs the Civil Rights Act of 1875, guaranteeing black Americans equal rights in public places and prohibiting their exclusion from jury duty. The act includes no enforcement provisions and will be declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1883. School integration, championed by the now-deceased Charles Sumner, is not included in the bill. The act, nevertheless, creates an important precedent.
  • Vice President Henry Wilson dies

    Vice President Henry Wilson dies.
  • Coining silver

    Congress authorizes the minting of $10 million in silver for coinage to be exchanged for legal tender notes. The trade dollar is no longer to be legal tender.
  • Period: to

    Rutherford B. Hayes

    Rutherford Birchard Hayes was born on October 4, 1822, in
    He attended Harvard Law School, graduating in 1845. He served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
    He was Governor of Ohio (1868–1872, 1876–1877). He married Lucy Ware Webb in 1852. he's presidency was best known for the end of Reconstruction and the withdrawal of federal troops from the South, effectively marking the end of federal intervention in Southern politics.
  • North and South relations

    Hayes's cabinet includes staunch liberal Republican William Evarts as Secretary of State and a former Confederate as postmaster general; the nomination of the latter appeases Southern Democrats as part of the Compromise of 1877.
  • Great Railroad Strike of 1877

    Following pay cuts, the first major interstate strike -the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 -begins on the Baltimore and Ohio (B&O) line at Camden Junction, Maryland; additional strikes will follow, lasting a month. Lacking organization, the strikes frequently degenerate into mob activity. Hayes sends federal troops to protect mail and quell the riots that take place in numerous cities, angering many workers. The strike will lead to anti-Chinese attacks in San Francisco during the fall.
  • Hayes limits Chinese immigration

    Hayes vetoes a bill which bans incoming vessels from carrying more than fifteen Chinese passengers. Hayes then works to negotiate changes to the Burlingame Treaty with China in order to set limits on Chinese immigration.
  • Democrats control congress

    Following congressional midterm elections, the Democratic Party controls both houses of Congress for the first time since the Civil War. Consequently, Hayes will have little sway in Congress.
  • Army Appropriations Bill

    Congress passes the Army Appropriations Bill. The law includes a “rider” which forbids the use of federal troops at polls, which many regard as an attempt to nullify black voting rights. Hayes vetoes the bill, but the House sustains the veto. Hayes again vetoes the rebuffed version, and many Republicans feel the veto secures the election of 1880.
  • Period: to

    James Garfield

    James Abram Garfield was born on November 19, 1831, in Ohio, United States.He then graduated from Williams College in Massachusetts in 1856. He was Senator-elect from Ohio (elected in 1880, but he never served). He married Lucretia Rudolph in 1858.
    - The assassination of James Garfield highlighted the need for civil service reform, eventually leading to the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act in 1883.
  • Garfield selects his cabinet

    Garfield completes his slate of cabinet members, naming James G. Blaine as Secretary of State and Abraham Lincoln's son, Robert, as Secretary of War. Garfield angers Conkling with his nomination of William Windom of Minnesota, a non-Eastern man, as Secretary of Treasury. Further, Garfield denies Conkling influence in New York politics by appointing William H. Robertson as collector of the port of New York and Thomas L. James postmaster of New York.
  • Garfield sends nominations to Senate

    Garfield sends his list of nominations to the Senate, which includes New York senator Conkling's contingent. Conkling will continue to be a source of conflict for the President.
  • Garfield removes E. A. Meritt

    Garfield removes E. A. Meritt from the collectorship of the New York Customhouse after Conkling feels assured that the President would not make any such changes. Garfield then sends W. H. Robertson's name to the Senate as his replacement, intensifying the struggle between Garfield and Conkling.
  • Filibuster begins

    Filibuster begins
    A Democratic filibuster, which ties up the Senate beginning March 23, ends when Garfield agrees to remove certain appointments. The end of the filibuster allows Garfield to push for Robertson's confirmation to the New York Customhouse. Earlier, Senator Conkling threatens to publish the Hubbell letter, which appears to link Garfield to the Star Route Scandal, a scheme to skim money from the U.S. Post Office. d.
  • Garfield removes nominations

    On the eve of the senatorial vote on the New York nominees, Garfield learns that Conkling intends to delay action on other nominees and moves for adjournment before Robertson can be considered. Garfield removes all of his nominations with the exception of Robertson.
  • New York senators resign

    New York senators Roscoe Conkling and Tom Platt resign to protest Garfield's removal of New York nominees to secure Robertson's confirmation.
  • Period: to

    Chester A. Arthur

    Chester Alan Arthur was born on October 5, 1829, in Vermont, United States. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1854.Chester Alan Arthur did not serve in the military. He was Vice President of the United States (1881) under President James A. Garfield. He married Ellen
    Herndon in 1859.He signed the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act into law in 1883, which established a merit-based system for federal employment and reduced the influence of political patronage.
  • Secretary of State Resigns

    Secretary of State James G. Blaine resigns due to political differences between himself and President Arthur.
  • Edmunds Act Passes

    Congress passes the Edmunds Act, which excludes bigamists and polygamists from voting and holding office, and establishes a five-man “Utah commission” to supervise voting in the territory of Utah.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act revised

    A revised version of the Chinese Exclusion Act, which reduces the period of non-immigration to ten years but maintains the ban on Chinese citizenship, becomes law. The act will be renewed regularly into the twentieth century.
  • Physician keeps President’s disease secret

    Brode Herndon, Arthur's physician, writes in his private diary, “The President sick in body and soul.” Arthur had been diagnosed that year with Bright's disease, a fatal kidney ailment; his health will deteriorate rapidly while being kept secret from the general public.
  • U.S.-Luxembourg Treaty

    The United States and Luxembourg conclude an extradition treaty in New York.
  • Period: to

    Grover Cleveland serve time 1

    Grover Cleveland was born on March 18, 1837, in New Jersey, United States. However, He pursued legal studies by apprenticing with an attorney. He passed the bar. He was
    Governor of New York (1883–1885). He married Frances Folsom in 1886. Grover Cleveland was the only U.S. president to serve two non-consecutive terms, making him both the 22nd and 24th president.
  • Vice President Thomas Hendrick dies

    Vice President Thomas Hendricks dies.
  • Accepting the Statue of Liberty

    Cleveland recommends to Congress that the nation accept France's gift of the Statue of Liberty. The gift commemorates the alliance between the two countries during the Revolutionary War. The statue will be placed on Liberty Island, adjacent to Ellis Island off the New Jersey coast. Ellis Island will serve as a welcoming center for the soaring number of immigrants to New York City.
  • Cleveland marries

    Cleveland and Francis Folsom marry.
  • Interstate Commerce Commission

    Following complaints about railroad rates and policies, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) is created to ensure fairness in the management of interstate railroads. Eventually, the scope of the ICC will expand to include all common carriers. The commission is the nation's first independent regulatory agency. Although Cleveland approves its creation, he has reservations about the agency.
  • Cleveland vetoes Dependent Pension Bill

    Cleveland vetoes the Dependent Pension Bill, which would have given a military pension to anyone serving a minimum of ninety days in any war. He argues that the bill will only encourage fraudulent assertions.
  • Period: to

    Benjamin Harrison

    Benjamin Harrison was born on August 20, 1833, in , Ohio, United States. He studied law in Cincinnati and was admitted to the bar in 1854.He served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was Indiana State Senator (1860–1862). He married Caroline Lavinia Scott in 1853. During his presidency, Harrison signed the Sherman Antitrust Act into law, which aimed to curb the power of monopolistic corporations.
  • Department of Agriculture created

    bill was signed creating the Department of Agriculture.
  • 4 territories becomes states

    the territories of North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Washington became a state
  • Berlin Conference

    Berlin Conference
    The Berlin Conference on Samoan Affairs begins, with the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom attempting to bring peace to the troubled area. The conference will conclude with the making of a treaty, “The Final Act of the Berlin Conference on Samoan Affairs,” which declares the neutrality and nominal independence of Samoa while creating a three-power protectorate over the islands. Secretary of State Blaine handles the negotiations.
  • Roosevelt visits the White House

    Harrison invites Theodore Roosevelt to the White House and appoints him Civil Service Commissioner on May 7. Roosevelt, a reform Republican from New York, heads the department until 1895.
  • Harrison nominates a Supreme Court justice

    Harrison nominates David J. Brewer to the Supreme Court. The Senate approves the choice two weeks later.
  • Reagan shot in chest

    Reagan is shot in the chest by John Warnock Hinckley Jr.
  • Period: to

    Grover Cleveland serve time 2

    Grover Cleveland was born on March 18, 1837, in New Jersey, United States. However, He pursued legal studies by apprenticing with an attorney. He passed the bar. He was
    Governor of New York (1883–1885). He married Frances Folsom in 1886. Grover Cleveland was the only U.S. president to serve two non-consecutive terms, making him both the 22nd and 24th president.
  • Cleveland withdraws Hawaiian annexation treaty

    Cleveland withdraws the Hawaiian annexation treaty, signed just prior to his inauguration. He takes the advice of a special commissioner who reports that proponents of the annexation are sugar planters; the majority of the population opposes such action. Cleveland advocates the restoration of the queen but the provisional government rejects this idea.
  • The Panic of 1893

    May 4, 1893
    The Panic of 1893
    The Panic of 1893 begins after the National Cordage Company and the Philadelphia and Reading railroads go bankrupt on May 4. A sharp decline in the New York stock market follows the next day, known as “Industrial Black Friday.” The panic also distresses farm regions.
  • Republic of Hawaii recognized

    Hawaii's provisional government declares the Republic of Hawaii. In its constitution, the body includes a provision for possible American annexation. On August 8, the U.S. government recognizes the Republic of Hawaii.
  • Supreme Court nullifies income tax law

    The Supreme Court nullifies the income tax law in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Company.
  • Utah becomes a state

    Utah is admitted to the union as the forty-fifth state.
  • Period: to

    William McKinley

    William McKinley was born on January 29, 1843, in Ohio, United States.He attended Allegheny College in Meadville, Pennsylvania, but he did not graduate.He served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was Governor of Ohio (1892–1896).He married Ida Saxton in 1871.
    - His presidency was marked by economic prosperity and a return to the gold standard, following the Panic of 1893 and the subsequent economic depression.
  • Relief for Cuba

    Congress appropriates $50,000 for the relief of Americans in Cuba.
  • Dingley Tariff Law

    President McKinley signs the Dingley Tariff Law, which raises custom duties by an average of 57 percent. Although American industries no longer needed such heavy protection against foreign goods, the tariff was raised nonetheless; imported woolen products, for example, faced a 91 percent rate. Republicans associate the high tariff with national prosperity while Democrats and progressives will blame the tariff for causing subsequent price increases.
  • Maine explodes

    The battleship Maine explodes and sinks in Havana harbor, killing 266 Americans. Subsequent press coverage of the event points to Spanish sabotage as the cause of the disaster, despite dubious evidence. The sinking of the Maine fans popular opinion, already sympathetic to the cause of Cuban independence, in support of American intervention. Battleship Maine Sinks
  • Civil war in Cuba

    President McKinley asks Congress for authority to “use armed force” in Cuba to end the civil war. Meanwhile, Spanish Prime Minister Sagasta makes a last-minute peace concession by offering the Cubans limited autonomy.
  • Congress declares war on Spain

    The United States Congress declares war on Spain.
  • Period: to

    Theodore Roosevelt

    Theodore Roosevelt was born on October 27, 1858, in New York, United States. He attended Harvard College, where he studied biology and later law. He served in the military during the Spanish-American War.He was Governor of New York (1899–1900). He married Edith Kermit Carow in 1886. Roosevelt's presidency was marked by his progressive policies, including trust-busting, conservation efforts, and consumer protection.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    Congress extends the Chinese Exclusion Act, prohibiting the immigration of Chinese laborers from the Philippines.
  • Republicans maintain control

    In congressional elections, the Republicans maintain a majority in the Senate, 57 to 33. In the House, the Republicans emerge with a 208-178 majority.
  • Champion v. Ames

    The Supreme Court hands down a decision in Champion v. Ames, making federal police power superior to that of the states. The ruling became the basis for the future federal regulation of food, drugs, and narcotics.
  • Revolt in Panama

    A revolt breaks out in Panama against Colombian rule. The uprising is sponsored by Panamanian agents and officers of the Panama Canal Company, with tacit permission of the Roosevelt administration. The presence of the American Navy prevents Colombia from crushing the revolt.
  • Panama recognized as a republic

    The United States recognizes the Republic of Panama.
  • Citizens of Puerto Rico, not of the U.S.

    The Supreme Court rules that citizens of Puerto Rico are not aliens and therefore cannot be denied entry to the continental United States. But the Court also holds that they are not U.S. citizens.
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act

    In accordance with the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, the Supreme Court, in Northern Securities Company v. United States, orders the dissolution of the Northern Securities Company. The decision is major victory for TR and his belief in the necessity of trust-busting.
  • Trade agreements with the Dominican Republic

    The United States signs a protocol with the Dominican Republic, thereby giving it control of the latter's customs and international in and mollifying European creditors. Though the Senate refuses to ratify this agreement, Roosevelt makes a temporary arrangement with the republic to undertake the newly envisioned “Roosevelt Corollary.”
  • Lochner v. New York

    In Lochner v. New York, the Supreme Court rules that state laws limiting working hours are illegal.
  • The Niagara Movement and the NAACP

    A group of black intellectuals, including W.E.B. DuBois, meets near Niagara Falls to demand racial equality. This begins the Niagara Movement, a forerunner of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
  • Period: to

    William Howard Taft

    : William Howard Taft was born on September 15, 1857, in Ohio, United States.He studied Cincinnati Law School and was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1880.He did not serve in the military.He was Secretary of War (1904–1908). He married Helen "Nellie" Herron in 1886.
    - Taft's presidency focused on trust-busting and reforming the civil service, but he faced challenges within his own party and struggled to reconcile the progressive and conservative wings of the Republican Party.
  • Calling for the Sixteenth Amendment

    The Senate passes a resolution calling for a Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution, authorizing Congress to collect income taxes.
  • Supporting tariffs

    While on a tour of the United States, Taft calls the Payne-Aldrich Act “the best” tariff bill ever passed by the Republican Party, leaving both Republican progressives and party regulars dismayed.
  • TR declines Taft's invitation

    TR declines Taft's invitation to the White House but praises the President's progress on a number of fronts, including railroad legislation, a postal savings bill, and conservationism.
  • Democrats win seats

    In congressional elections, Democrats win control of the House of Representatives for the first time since 1894, gaining a 228 to 162 to 1 majority. In the Senate, Republicans hold a 51 to 41 advantage.
  • Mobilizing along Mexican border

    Taft orders the mobilization of 20,000 American soldiers along the Mexican border after American ambassador to Mexico Henry Lane Wilson reports that the safety of Americans residing in Mexico may be endangered.
  • Period: to

    Woodrow Wilson

    Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born on December 28, 1856, in Virginia, United States. He later earned a Ph.D. in political science and history from Johns Hopkins University in 1886.He did not serve in the military. Governor of New Jersey (1911–1913). He was married Ellen Louise Axson in 1885.His presidency was marked by significant domestic and international challenges. He implemented progressive reforms such as the Federal Reserve Act, the Federal Trade Commission Act, and the Clayton Antitrust Act.
  • Seventeenth Amendment

    The Seventeenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is enacted, providing for the direct popular election of U.S. senators. Previously, senators were chosen by their respective state legislatures. This amendment succeeds in diminishing the prestige of state governments and enhances popular control of the federal legislature.
  • Foreign policy with Mexico

    After considerable political instability in Mexico, following the assassination of President Francisco Madero, President Wilson declares the United States policy towards Mexico to be one of “watchful waiting.” Wilson refuses to recognize the new government of General Victoriano Huerta, who led the coup against Madero on February 22.
  • Federal Reserve Act

    In an effort to safeguard America's financial institutions, the American economy, and the supply of U.S. currency, the Federal Reserve Act is signed into law.
  • Occupation of Vera Cruz

    At Vera Cruz, Mexico, U.S. forces seize the customhouse. Marines occupy the city and a detachment is sent to exact an apology from President Huerta for the arrest of several drunken U.S. sailors earlier in the month.
  • Smith-Lever Act

    Congress passes The Smith-Lever Act, providing federal funds for agricultural instruction for farmers and state college students.
  • Federal Farm Labor Act

    President Wilson signs the Federal Farm Labor Act, establishing a banking system for farmers to improve their holdings.
  • Wilson's "Peace without victory" speech

    President Wilson criticizes the European powers' war aims in a speech in the Senate, urging the combatants to accept “peace without victory” to ensure a settlement free of rancor that could ignite another war.
  • Pershing recalled

    The War Department recalls U.S. forces under General Pershing from Mexico after searching in vain for Pancho Villa fo
  • Zimmermann Telegram released

    The White House releases the contents of the Zimmermann Telegram to the press, three days after Wilson asks Congress for the authority to arm merchant ships.
  • Liberty Loan drive

    President Wilson signs a bill instituting the first Liberty Loan drive, authorizing Secretary of Treasury William G. McAdoo to sell $3 billion of debt at 3.5 percent to the public.
  • Period: to

    Warren G. Harding

    Warren Harding was born in Ohio, United States. He studied law and became a successful newspaper publisher. He did not serve in the military. He was United States Senator from Ohio (1915–1921). He married Florence Kling DeWolfe in 1891. They had no children together.His presidency was marked by a return to normalcy after World War I. He advocated for a policy of isolationism and focused on domestic issues such as reducing government intervention in the economy and promoting business interests
  • Official end of war with Germany

    Harding signs a joint congressional resolution declaring the official end of war with Germany. The question of reparations will continue to be debated over the next few years.
  • Budget and Accounting Act

    Harding signs the Budget and Accounting Act in order to better organize the federal government's accounts. The act establishes the Bureau of the Budget and the General Accounting Office under the Treasury Department.
  • Nineteenth Amendment deemed constitutional

    The Supreme Court unanimously finds the Nineteenth Amendment, providing for women's suffrage, constitutional.
  • The Teapot Dome Scandal

    Interior Secretary Albert B. Fall leases the Teapot Dome oil reserves to Harry Sinclair, setting in motion what comes to be known over the next two years as the Teapot Dome scandal.
  • United Mine Workers v. Coronado Coal Co.

    In United Mine Workers v. Coronado Coal Co., the Supreme Court rules, under the Sherman Act, that striking miners are liable for damage inflicted upon company property. The ruling is the first in a number of federal efforts to control organized labor that have become increasingly volatile during the postwar recession.
  • Period: to

    Calvin Coolidge

    John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was born on July 4, 1872, in Vermont, United States.. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1897. Calvin Coolidge did not serve in the military.He was Governor of Massachusetts (1919–1921). He married Grace Anna Goodhue in 1905.Coolidge's presidency is often associated with the economic prosperity of the 1920s, known as the "Roaring Twenties." His administration pursued pro-business policies, including tax cuts and reduced government regulation.
  • Martial law and the KKK

    Governor J. C. Walton places Oklahoma under martial law in order to suppress the increasing terrorism of the Ku Klux Klan, which has reemerged in the South and Midwest in response to worsening economic conditions.
  • Soldiers' Bonus Bill passes

    Providing twenty-year annuities for veterans at an overall cost of $2 billion, the Soldiers' Bonus Bill is passed by the House. One month later, the Senate also passes the bill only to have Coolidge veto it; Congress will later override the veto.
  • Pact of Anapala

    Representatives from Nicaragua, Guatemala, and El Salvador sign the Pact of Anapala with the United States, agreeing to cut off aid to the insurgent forces in neighboring Honduras threatening to overthrow President Rafael Gutierrez. This was one of many attempts by the United States, which had first sent Marines to Honduras as early as 1919, to keep Gutierrez in power. These efforts ultimately failed when insurgent leader Tiburcio Carias became dictator in 1933.
  • New immigration law

    Congress passes a new immigration law with even more restrictive quotas than those established by a temporary act two years earlier. Japanese immigrants are barred completely while Canadians and Mexicans remain exempted from the quotas.
  • Parties nominate their candidates

    The national political parties hold conventions to nominate presidential and vice-presidential candidates for the upcoming elections. The Republican Party nominates Coolidge and Charles G. Dawes; the Democrats, John W. Davis and Charles W. Bryan; and the Progressives, Robert La Follette and Burton K. Wheeler.
  • Isle of Pines Treaty ratified

    The Isle of Pines Treaty is finally ratified by the Senate. Pending since 1904, the treaty recognizes Cuban possession of the Isle of Pines.
  • Cancelling French debt

    France and the United States sign an agreement that eventually cancels sixty percent of the French debt from the Great War.
  • U.S. and Canadian relations

    The United States and Canada establish diplomatic relations independent of Britain.
  • Coolidge chooses not to run

    Concerned that four more years in office might appear to some observers as a third term as President, Coolidge ends any talk of his candidacy for the 1928 election stating, “I do not choose to run.”
  • Conflict in Mexico's Constitution

    The United States recognizes new president Alvaro Obregon on the condition that he grant American firms subsoil rights. Under such pressure, the Mexican Supreme Court rules the law unconstitutional, returning all rights back to American companies.
  • Period: to

    Herbert Hoover

    Herbert Clark Hoover was born on August 10, 1874, in Iowa, United States. He pursued graduate studies at Stanford.He did not serve in the military during wartime.He was Secretary of Commerce (1921–1928). He married Lou Henry in 1899. Hoover implemented various measures to combat the Depression, including tax cuts, public works projects, and efforts to stabilize the banking system.
  • "Black Thursday"

    On “Black Thursday,” the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) experiences a collapse in stock prices as 13 million shares are sold. Even wealthy investors J. P. Morgan and John D. Rockefeller, in an effort to save the market by furiously buying stock, cannot check the fall.
  • "Black Tuesday"

    On “Black Tuesday,” a record 16.4 million shares of stock are traded on the NYSE as large blocks of equities are sold at extremely low prices. The trading continues the sharp downward trend of the previous week. It is an abrupt change from the over-speculation of the previous months. By December 1, NYSE stocks will have lost $26 billion in value.
  • Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act

    Against the urgings of many economists, Hoover signs the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, raising duties prohibitively high on many imports. Rather than solve the economic crash, the act causes other countries to follow America's lead by raising their tariffs. Such “economic nationalism” exacerbates both the international depression and nationalist tensions.
  • Construction of Hoover Dam begins

    Construction of the Hoover Dam begins in Las Vegas, Nevada. The dam will be completed in 1936.
  • Yuko Hamaguchi assassinated

    Japanese Premier, Yuko Hamaguchi, is assassinated by a military fanatic. Hamaguchi had supported the London Naval Treaty signed in April, and his death opens the government to the increasing influence of military groups. Eighteen months later, Hamaguchi's replacement, Ki Inukai, will also be assassinated, with these groups assuming full control of the government.
  • Period: to

    Franklin D. Roosevelt

    Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in New York, United States. He attended Harvard University, where he graduated in 1903. He served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy during World War I. He was Governor of New York (1929–1932).He married Eleanor Roosevelt, his distant cousin, in 1905. His presidency was defined by his response to the Great Depression and World War II.
  • Congress passes the Federal Emergency Relief Act

    (FERA). It provides immediate grants to states for relief project, unlike Hoover's earlier proposals, which only provided loans. The legislature also passes the Agricultural Adjustment Act, establishing the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA), which restricts the production of certain crops and pays farmers not to till their land. Roosevelt hopes that the AAA will reduce agricultural production, raise prices, and aid suffering farmers.
  • Congress passes the Federal Securities Act

    Congress passes the Federal Securities Act, requiring all issues of stocks and bonds to be registered and approved by the federal government.
  • FDR establishes the National Labor Board

    FDR establishes the National Labor Board, with Senator Robert Wagner of New York as its head. The NLB is created to enforce the right of organized labor to bargain collectively. Its existence marks a sharp change in the federal government's stance toward labor.
  • Congress passes the Gold Reserve Act

    Congress passes the Gold Reserve Act, allowing the President to fix the value of the U.S. dollar at between 50 to 60 cents in terms of gold. The next day, FDR signs the Farm Mortgage Refinancing Act, establishing the Federal Farm Mortgage Corporation, designed to help farmers pay their mortgages by granting them easier terms of credit. Both efforts illustrate the federal government's increasing control over the nation's currency.
  • Export-Import Bank

    By executive order, FDR establishes the Export-Import Bank to encourage commerce between the United States and foreign nations, especially Latin America.
  • Congress passes the Revenue Act

    Congress passes the Revenue Act, increasing taxes on inheritances and gifts, as well as on higher incomes and corporations. The bill reverses long-standing revenue laws that had favored America's wealthiest elite.
  • Ethiopia succumbs to Italy

    Ethiopia succumbs to Italy after its capital falls and Emperor Haile Selassie flees. The inability of democratic nations to counter fascist aggression encourages Mussolini and Hitler to pursue further gains.
  • Gibbs v. Board of Education

    The NAACP wins its case, Gibbs v. Board of Education, against the state of Maryland, ensuring that white and black teachers are paid equally.
  • Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenancy Act

    Congress passes the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenancy Act, establishing the Farm Securities Administration (FSA), which provides low-interest loans to struggling farmers.
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act

    FDR signs the second Agricultural Adjustment Act as part of a continuing effort to stabilize agricultural prices and farmers' incomes. To these ends, his administration establishes the Federal Crop Insurance Corp, an agency which will accept wheat as payment for crop insurance taken out against the same crops.
  • Period: to

    Harry S. Truman

    Harry S. Truman was born on May 8, 1884, in Missouri, United States. He did not attend college or obtain a formal university degree.He served in World War I as an artillery officer in the United States Army. He was Vice President of the United States (1945). He married Bess Wallace in 1919.
    - Truman's presidency was marked by several significant events, including the decision to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which led to the end of World War II.
  • Roosevelt dies

    President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies in Warm Spring, Georgia; Harry S. Truman becomes the thirty-third President of the United States.
  • Germany surrenders

    Germany surrenders, ending World War II in Europe.
  • Hiroshima Bombed

    The United States drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan.
  • Nagasaki

    The United States drops an atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan.
  • Japan surrenders

    Japan surrenders, ending World War II in Asia.
  • Employment Act of 1946

    Truman signs the Employment Act of 1946, placing increased responsibility for economic stability on the federal government.
  • Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech

    Winston Churchill delivers his “Iron Curtain” speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, condemning the Soviet Union’s policies of expansion and calling for strengthening the U.S-Britain alliance.
  • Taft-Hartley Act vetoed

    Truman vetoes the Taft-Hartley Act.
  • Marshall Plan passed

    Congress passes the European Recovery Program (the “Marshall Plan”).
  • British, U.S. airlift to Berlin

    In conjunction with the British, Truman orders the airlifting of supplies into West Berlin
  • Period: to

    Dwight D. Eisenhower

    Dwight David Eisenhower was born on October 14, 1890, in Texas, United States. He attended the United States Military Academy at West Point. He later pursued advanced military education and staff positions. He served in both World War I and World War II, rising through the ranks to become a five-star general. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army (1945–1948).His presidency was marked by a focus on foreign policy, including the Cold War confrontation with the Soviet Union.
  • Stalin dies

    The Soviet Union announces the death of Josef Stalin.
  • Eisenhower delivers “Chance for Peace” speech

    Eisenhower delivers his “Chance for Peace” speech, also knowns as the “Cross of Iron” speech, to the American Society of Newspaper Editors, speaking against increased military spending.
  • Eisenhower proposes Social Security coverage increase

    Eisenhower proposes broadening the provisions of the Social Security Act to cover more than 10 million additional Americans.
  • Soviets test H-bomb

    Eisenhower announces that the Soviet Union has tested a hydrogen bomb.
  • U.S. and Japan agree on rearmament

    The United States and Japan sign a mutual defense agreement that provides for the gradual and partial rearmament of Japan.
  • Federal Highway Act

    Eisenhower signs the Federal Aid Highway Act, providing federal funding for the construction of a system of interstate highways for transportation and national defense.
  • Social Security Act of 1956

    Eisenhower signs the Social Security Act 1956, permitting women to retire at age sixty-two and disabled workers at age fifty.
  • Cease-fire in Egypt

    A cease-fire is established in Egypt.
  • JFK wins a Pulitzer

    John F. Kennedy wins a Pulitzer Prize for his book Profiles in Courage.
  • Need for space exploration

    Eisenhower recommends the formation of a civilian agency to direct space exploration.
  • Period: to

    John F. Kennedy

    John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917, in Massachusetts, United States.He attended Harvard CollegeJohn F. Kennedy served in the United States Navy during World War II. He was United States Senator from Massachusetts (1953–1960).He married Jacqueline Bouvier in 1953.
    Kennedy's presidency was marked by a focus on civil rights, space exploration, and foreign policy challenges such as the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Bay of Pigs invasion.
    nd the world.
  • Bay of Pigs

    On April 17, 1961, a brigade of about 1,500 Cuban exiles landed at Bahia de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) on the southern coast of Cuba. Their mission was to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro by inciting revolt among the Cuban people. Funded and supplied by the United States, this invasion ended in absolute failure with some of the exiles killed and many captured by Castro's army.
  • An American in space

    Alan Shepard Jr. becomes the first American in space.
  • Geneva conference adjourns

    The Geneva conference, with the United States, Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom participating, adjourns without reaching an agreement on a nuclear test ban.
  • End trade with Cuba

    Kennedy halts virtually all trade with Cuba.
  • Kennedy reduces import duties

    Kennedy announces the reduction of U.S. import duties as part of an agreement to promote international trade.
  • Period: to

    Lyndon B. Johnson

    Lyndon Baines Johnson was born on August 27, 1908, in Texas, United States. He attended Georgetown University Law Center.He served briefly in the United States Naval Reserve during World War II.He was Vice President of the United States (1961–1963).He married Claudia Alta Taylor, known as Lady Bird Johnson, in 1934.His was marked by significant legislative achievements, including the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the creation of Medicare and Medicaid.
  • Johnson addresses Congress

    Johnson addresses a joint session of Congress calling on legislators to fulfill Kennedy's legacy and pass civil rights and tax legislation.
  • Twenty-Fourth Amendment ratified

    The Twenty-Fourth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified, abolishing poll taxes.
  • Johnson’s Great Society

    In a speech at the University of Michigan, Johnson announces his intention to create a Great Society by extending American prosperity to all its citizens.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Johnson signs The Civil Rights Act of 1964, outlawing discrimination based on race or color, sex, religion or national origin. This act also prohibits discrimination in voter registration as well as segregation in schools, employment and public accommodations.
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

    Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution giving the President power to pursue military action in Vietnam
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    Johnson signs the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.
  • Escalation in Vietnam

    Johnson increases the number of troops sent to Vietnam, indicating his determination to engage in a ground war.
  • Medicare, Medicaid created

    Johnson signs legislation creating Medicare and Medicaid.
  • France withdraws from NATO

    France withdraws from NATO
    Fearing that American involvement in Vietnam will draw France into a world war, French president Charles de Gaulle announces that France will withdraw from NATO.
  • Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated

    Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
  • Period: to

    Richard M. Nixon

    Richard Nixon was born on January 9, 1913, in , California, United States.He attended Duke University School of Law, graduating in 1937. He served in the United States Navy during World War II. He was Vice President of the United States (1953–1961). He married Thelma "Pat" Ryan in 1940. They had two daughters, Tricia and Julie.
    - Nixon's presidency was marked by significant domestic and foreign policy initiatives. He implemented policies such as the New Federalism,
  • Men land on the moon

    The NASA Apollo 11 mission is a success with men landing on the moon. Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins fulfilled the promise President Kennedy made, nearly ten years prior, of a lunar landing. They touch down on the moon’s surface four days after the launch.
  • Creating the EPA

    Nixon puts forth a plan to reorganize federal environmental agencies, leading to the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency.
  • Five-point peace in Vietnam

    In a televised address, Nixon proposes a five-point peace plan for Indochina. The plan includes a “cease-fire in place” and the negotiated withdrawal of U.S. troops from Vietnam.
  • Emergency Employment Act

    Nixon signs an Emergency Employment Act, earmarking $2.25 billion for the creation of public service jobs at state and local levels.
  • National day-care system vetoed

    Nixon vetoes legislation calling for the establishment of a national day-care system.
  • Period: to

    Gerald R. Ford

    Gerald Ford was born on July 14, 1913, in Nebraska, United States. He attended Yale Law School, graduating in 1941.He served in the United States Navy during World War II. He was Vice President of the United States (1973–1974)
    He married Elizabeth "Betty" Bloomer Warren in 1948.
    - Ford's presidency was marked by efforts to heal the nation following the Watergate scandal and the Vietnam War.
  • Pardon possibility

    Ford holds his first press conference as President. When questioned about the possibility of a pardon for former President Nixon, he replies that he is not ruling it out.
  • Clemency for draft evaders

    The government announces a clemency whereby draft evaders and military deserters could “earn their return to the mainstream of American society” by performing alternative services.
  • Democrats gain seats

    In the off-year elections, Democrats are victorious all over the country. They gain 43 House seats and 3 Senate seats, giving them a majority in both Houses of Congress. They also gain 4 governorships.
  • Rockefeller confirmed

    By a vote of 287-128, the House confirms Nelson A. Rockefeller as Vice President; he is later sworn into office.
  • inflation rate drops

    The inflation rate drops from 12.2 in the latter months of 1974 to 4.6 in the first six months of 1976.
  • Period: to

    James Carter

    James Earl Carter Jr. was born on October 1, 1924, in Georgia, United States. He pursued graduate studies in nuclear physics at Union College.He served in the United States Navy from 1946 to 1953, He was Governor of Georgia (1971–1975).He married Rosalynn Smith in 1946.
    - Carter's presidency was marked by several significant events, including the Camp David Accords, which led to a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt.
  • Soviet dissident receives Carter’s support

    Soviet dissident Andrei Sakharov receives a written letter of support from President Carter.
  • Carter opposes B-1 bomber

    Carter announces opposition to production of the B-1 strategic bomber.
  • China granted diplomatic status

    The Carter administration grants full diplomatic status to the People's Republic of China.
  • MX missile approved

    Carter approves development of the MX missile.
  • "Carter Doctrine”

    Carter announces the “Carter Doctrine” in his State of the Union address, asserting that threats to the Persian Gulf region will be viewed as “an assault of the vital interests of the United States.”
  • Period: to

    Ronald Reagan

    Ronald Reagan was born on February 6, 1911, in T Illinois, United States.He attended Eureka College, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics and sociology in 1932. He served during World War II, but he did not see combat. He was Governor of California (1967–1975)
    He married actress Jane Wyman in 1940.He was reelected in 1984, defeating Democratic candidate Walter Mondale in a landslide victory.
  • Soviet grain embargo lifted

    Soviet grain embargo lifted
    Reagan lifts a grain embargo imposed on Soviet Union by President Carter.
  • Reagan dismisses strikers

    Reagan orders the dismissal of 13,000 PATCO air traffic controllers out on strike, citing their violation of a federal law against industry strikes.
  • Cutting taxes

    Reagan signs a tax cut into law.
  • Negotiating with Soviet Union

    Reagan states that he will not deploy intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Europe if the Soviet Union agrees to dismantle similar weapons already in place.
  • Tax Equity & Fiscal Responsibility Act

    Reagan signs the Tax Equity & Fiscal Responsibility Act (TEFRA).
  • U.S. illegally sells arms to Iran

    Reagan informs Congress that the United States secretly sold arms to Iran in violation of federal laws prohibiting arms deals with Iran. The administration denies that the sales were part of an attempt to secure the release of American hostages held by Iranian-backed forces.
  • Funds from illegal arms deal diverted

    Regan admits that between $10 and $30 million had been diverted from Iranian arms sales and funneled to the Nicaraguan contras. This becomes known as the Iran-Contra affair.
  • Reagan takes responsibility

    In televised address, Reagan accepts responsibility for actions in Iran-Contra affair that he claims occurred without his knowledge.
  • Gorbachev, Reagan sign treaty

    Gorbachev and Reagan meet in Washington, D.C., and sign the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty.
  • Reagan visits Soviet Union

    Reagan visits the Soviet Union for the first time.
  • Period: to

    George H. W. Bush

    George Herbert Walker Bush was born on June 12, 1924, in Massachusetts, United States. He attended Yale University, where he graduated with a degree in economics in 1948.
    He served as a naval aviator in World War II
    He was Director of Central Intelligence (1976–1977)
    he married Barbara Pierce in 1945. His presidency was marked by foreign policy achievements, including the end of the Cold War and the reunification of Germany.
  • Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    In the worst oil spill on American territory, the Exxon Valdez supertanker runs aground in southeastern Alaska. The tanker dumps 240,000 barrels of oil into the surrounding waters and causes extensive environmental damage.
  • Bush Condemns China’s Actions

    In the wake of the Tiananmen Square massacres, President Bush announces a number of condemnatory actions, including the suspension of the sale of American weapons to China.
  • Berlin Wall Falls

    The Berlin Wall falls, marking the symbolic end of Communist rule in Eastern Europe.
  • Fair Labor Standards Amendments

    President Bush signs the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1989, which by April 1991 would raise the minimum wage to $4.25 an hour. The law was a significant victory for Bush over congressional Democrats, who in the spring of 1989 passed a bill, which President Bush vetoed on June 13, that raised the minimum wage to $4.55.
  • New Anti-Drug Law

    President Bush signs a new anti-drug law that provides more than $3 billion for expanded anti-drug programs, including treatment facilities, federal prison expansion, education, and law enforcement.
  • New Taxes Proposed

    President Bush, in a written statement released to the press, reneges on his “no new taxes” pledge from the 1988 presidential campaign by stating that in order to solve the deficit problem, tax increases might be necessary for the 1991 fiscal year.
  • Period: to

    William J. Clinton

    Bill Clinton was born on August 19, 1946, in Hope, Arkansas, United States.He attended Yale Law School, where he earned a Juris Doctor degree in 1973.Bill Clinton did not serve in the military.He was Governor of Arkansas (1979–1981, 1983–1992). He married Hillary Rodham in 1975. his presidency was marked by economic prosperity and domestic policy achievements, including welfare reform, the Family and Medical Leave Act, and the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement
  • Supreme Court halts recount

    In a 5-4 ruling, the U.S. Supreme Court stops the recount of votes in several contested Florida counties. The Democratic candidate, Vice President Albert Gore Jr., concedes the election, leaving Governor George W. Bush of Texas, the Republican candidate, as President-elect.
  • Period: to

    George W. Bush

    George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, in Connecticut, United States.He attended Yale University, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in history in 1968. he served in the Texas Air National Guard during the Vietnam War era.He was Governor of Texas (1995–2000)
    He married Laura Welch in 1977. His presidency was marked by significant events, including the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001, which led to the War on Terror and the invasion of Afghanistan.
  • Bush bans abortion aid

    In one of his first policy decisions, President Bush decides to reinstate the ban on aid to international groups performing or counseling on abortion. The ban was initiated by former President Ronald Reagan but is not enforced during the administration of President Bill Clinton.
  • Attacking Iraq

    United States airplanes attack Iraqi radar sites to enforce a “no-fly zone.” Bush calls the military action a “routine mission.”
  • Bush backs Taiwan over China

    President Bush signals a change in relations with China by officially pledging military support for Taiwan in the event of an attack by China. This is the first time a presidential administration has publicly acknowledged a position that had previously been implicitly accepted.
  • Trillion dollar tax cut

    President Bush signs a $1.35 trillion tax cut into law. Although the amount falls short of the $1.60 trillion the administration has been seeking, the bill does slash income tax rates across the board and provides for the gradual elimination of the estate tax.
  • D.C. Anthrax scare

    The Capital shuts down amidst an Anthrax scare. Persons in Florida and New York have already tested positive for the frequently fatal bacteria. Bush calls for $1.5 billion to fight bioterrorism.
  • Action against Iraq

    Seeking support for action against Iraq, President Bush addresses Congress, identifying Iraqi strongman Saddam Hussein as “a serious threat.” Bush mentions the concept of a regime change and announces the visit of British Prime Minister Tony Blair in the days to come. House Majority Whip Tom DeLay (R-TX) calls action in Iraq “inevitable.”
  • Arms inspections in Iraq

    Following a United Nations report issued by arms inspectors indicating that Iraq remained in violation of Security Council Resolution 1441, Bush speaks out again against Iraq. Inspections in Iraq continue.
  • Columbia shuttle explosion

    The seven-member crew of the shuttle Columbia dies in an explosion in space. Debris falls in Texas.
  • Bush declares war with Iraq

    The 8:00 p.m. deadline for Hussein to leave Iraq passes. At 10:15 p.m., Bush addresses the nation and informs the American people that the United States is at war with Iraq.
  • Bush claims “Mission Accomplished”

    In a nationally televised address aboard the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln, Bush stands in front of a “Mission Accomplished” banner and declares that major combat operations in Iraq are over. He links the Iraq War to the War on Terror and vows to continue searching for banned weapons in Iraq.
  • Period: to

    Barack Obama

    Barack Hussein Obama II was born on August 4, 1961, in Hawaii, United States. He attended Harvard Law School, where he earned his Juris Doctor degree in 1991.He did not serve in the military.He was Illinois State Senator (1997–2004).He married Michelle Robinson in 1992. His presidency was marked by several significant events, including the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), often referred to as Obamacare, which aimed to expand healthcare coverage and reform the healthcare system.
  • Signing of first bill

    The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act become law. The bill makes it easier for people to challenge unequal pay complaints and is designed to help address the wage gap between men and women.
  • Speech in Cairo

    The president gives a speech at Cairo University in Egypt, discussing the U.S. relations with countries in the Middle East.
  • Nobel Peace Prize

    Obama is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for “his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples.”
  • Hate Crimes Prevention Act

    The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr., Hate Crimes Prevention Act becomes law to help jurisdictions to investigate and prosecute hate crimes more effectively.
  • Reduction of nuclear arms

    President Obama and President Dmitry Medvedev of Russia sign the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START). This is an agreement to reduce the stockpile of nuclear weapons by the United States and Russia.
  • Veteran education reform

    Obama puts into practice the post-911 GI Bill. This bill assists in obtaining a free or cheaper college tuition for those who have served in the U.S. military.
  • VA Secretary resigns

    Secretary of Veteran’s Affairs, General Eric Shinseki, resigns after it was revealed that veterans had to wait months for care at VA hospitals.
  • 50th anniversary of Selma marches

    President Obama and his family take part in the 50th anniversary of the civil rights marches in Selma, Alabama.
  • Cuba trip

    Obama becomes the first sitting U.S. president to visit Cuba since 1928.
  • Supreme Court upholds health care law

    The Supreme Court rules 6-3 that tax credits are available to eligible citizens for insurance purchased on any exchange created under the ACA.
  • Period: to

    Donald Trump

    Donald John Trump was born on June 14, 1946, in New York, United States.He attended Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.He did not serve in the military.
    He married Ivana Zelníčková in 1977.Trump had no prior experience in elected office before becoming President. His presidency was marked by a focus on economic nationalism, immigration reform, deregulation, and a more confrontational approach to foreign policy.
  • Women's March

    Millions of people around the world participate in the Women’s March, the largest single-day march in US history, to protest the Trump administration and its policies.
  • Reversal on environmental protection

    President Trump signs an executive order that rolls back the Obama administration’s temporary ban on mining coal and a protection rule for streams. Trump reverses much of Obama’s clean power strategy, rolling back US action to combat climate change.
  • Action against Syrian government

    President Trump orders US strikes against an air base in Syria after the Syrian government launches a chemical weapons attack against the Syrian province of Idlib, killing civilians including children.
  • Bannon resigns

    Stephen Bannon resigns from the White House. Bannon was a chief strategist in the White House and campaign aid for President Trump. He helped develop the administration’s nationalist and populist approaches to immigration policy.
  • Trumps’s attorney pleads guilty

    President Trump’s former personal lawyer, Michael Cohen, pleads guilty to federal charges, including campaign finance violations and bank and tax fraud. Trump’s former campaign manager, Paul Manafort, is convicted of eight charges including tax evasion and bank fraud.