Pre-Modern East Asian History

Timeline created by wmscecilia
  • 1,400 BCE

    Anyang is Shang Capital

    Shang capital city, either Yinxu or Anyang, is biggest in the world - 100,000 people. City's workshops had hierarchical network of control, large palace was set apart from city centre, stratified elites existed
  • 1,000 BCE

    End of Neolithic Period in China

    Hierarchy, expansion and sophistication led to loose network of princely city-states around Huanghe Basin; jadeworking, temples, palaces, workshops and tombs appear
  • -850 BCE

    Zhou Bureaucracy

    Emperor (called king) was first, followed by Council of Elders, then 6 Ministries and 6 Armies. Armies commanded by king, each had 12,500 men. Territory had 12,500 districts with smaller towns, wards and villages in groups of 5. Feudal lords ruled districts on behalf of king, power ultimately concentrated in them
  • -470 BCE

    Chunqiu of Lu (Spring and Autumn Annals) Compiled

    Records the reigns of 12 Dukes of Lu, from 722-481 beccb; possibly draws on earlier sources, reflects historiographical traditions at state and local levels, stylistic decisions in place from early on - prescriptive judgments against leaders shown through inclusion/omission of dates, titles, etc. Factual accuracy + critical analysis in one document, later inspired rest of Chinese historiography
  • -280 BCE

    Mengzi Book Written

    Philosopher Mengzi writes a book positing that ritual produces/reflects order; state order is derived from state ritual and family order from family ritual. Everything based on state, which is based on family, family based on self. Also believed people were inherently good, will naturally follow rituals. Daxue text goes a bit deeper, describes proper intentions and heart as necessary for family/cosmic order; perfect inside will create perfect outside
  • -259 BCE

    Qin Unifies China

    Powerful Qin kingdom defeats rival Chu, declares new dynasty. Previous rulers had all declared themselves king as regional hegemony broke down; Qin backed up claim with military might
  • -200 BCE

    Zhouli Written

    The Zhouli or Rites of Zhou, details and recreates the rituals of the declining dynasty; anxiety as efficiency and military strength become more important, 300 general and 3000 personal rites recorded. Sets precedent for glorification of Zhou as ideal ritual and governmental era
  • -190 BCE

    Qin Bureaucracy

    Emperor (1st to claim title) as head, followed by Defender, Counselor and Censor-in-chief; Territory grouped into 216 Commandries, ruled by governors; feudal domains abolished, aristocratic power curtailed, 1 month of military service a year mandatory for all over aged 33, plus 2 years at local garrison
  • -100 BCE

    Liji Written

    Book of Rites, Liji,states ritual establishes social order, provides emotion balance, responds to cosmological structures and appeases ghosts through sacrifice. Liji is 1st systematic framework for rituals, creates new place for them in world of militancy and efficiency; ritual exemplifies ideal state of world, enacted pretension
  • -94 BCE

    Shiji Finished

    The Shiji, or Records of the Grand Historian, was China's first comprehensive historiography. Sections include Basic Annals (imperial history), Tables (chronology of pre-Han states), Treatises (aspects of governance), Hereditary Houses and Biographies/Narratives, the longest section (stories like cultural touchstone Han Xin) The Shiji established the precedent of writing based on factual evidence,state-sponsored historiographies and a Confucian analysis of events/actions
  • -2 BCE

    Civil Service Exams Emerge

    Eventually become one of the strongest and longest-lasting institutions in China; recruit bureaucrats and powerful civil servants, placate or punish aristocratic families, give prestige to refinement and education, standardise learning and increase social mobility
  • AD 1

    Pensions Established

    Tradition emerges from 1 cade, as sign of bureaucratic institutions' strength and sophistication
  • 136

    Wujing Boshi Compiled

    Wujing Boshi, the 5 Classics, written down in process that syncretised Confucianism with existing governing ideologies; contents were Book of Changes (Yi), Documents (Shu), Songs (Shi), Rituals (Li) and Chunqiu; Shu speculated on Golden Age of Zhou propriety with imaginary speeches, etc. Li covers meaning and practice of decorum, Chunqiu is boring and factual, Shi has ideas of proper conduct for leaders
  • 150

    Han Bureaucracy

    Emperor was head, followed by 3 Dukes and eunuch-run Imperial Secretariat; feudal fiefs re-established with aristocratic leaders; main power struggle was between eunuchs and aristocrats
  • 184

    Han Dynasty Fragments

    Han territory becomes Wei, Shu and Wu states due to increasing power of aristocratic landholdings
  • 371

    Baekjae Sacks Koguryo Capital

    Baekjae's attack on the Koguryo capital prompts it to form a closer relationship with Qin-era China; in the meantime, Baekjae and Gaya are benefitting from cultural and economic trade with Japan. By the 5th century, Baekjae is courting the Northern Wei dynasty in China as source of military aid
  • 372

    Taehak Confucian School Built

    Confucian school built in Koguryo, showing the influence Chinese ideas were beginning to have on the Korean peninsula; school established around the same time as Buddhism arrived in Koguryo - both were used to legitimise and shore up ruling classes
  • 538

    Buddhism Becomes State Religion in Japan

  • 562

    Kaya Destroyed by Silla

    Japan's closest cultural and economic ally on the Korean peninsula was cut off due to the invasion, forcing Japan to turn to Baekjae for economic and cultural companionship
  • 590

    Sui Bureaucracy

    Emperor is head, and underneath fall the 9 Courts, 4 Directorates, 5 Departments and 3 Surveillance Agencies; 6 Ministries now part of 5 Depts. Commandries restored as bureaucratic units, imperial exams established to reduce bureaucratic power,
  • 593

    Asuka-dera Temple Built

    Temple's construction reveals that, despite somewhat rocky start, Buddhism is now well-established in Japan
  • 604

    Shotoku Taishi Writes Constitution

    Shotoku Taishi writes 17 article constitution setting a code of conduct for governance, instilling Buddhist and Confucian ideology in the imperial government; Buddhist ideals clearly tied to government
  • 624

    Tang Code

    Earliest full surviving Chinese legal code, has 500+ articles covering trespassing, official errors and punishments; hierarchical structure metes out different punishments for different relationships between people involved in crime
  • 645

    Taika Reforms Begin

    Soga clan overthrown, reforms sparked that brought Fujiwara clan to power, styles emperor along Chinese lines, political and fiscal reforms promulgated which led to the ritsuryo state
  • 662

    Ritsuryo Legal Codes Written

    Ritsuryo, legal codes that describe governance and law along Chinese lines, mark a shift in constitutional organisation; part of broader Chinese-style Taika reforms; land nearly nationalised in system like equal fields, conscription of men for military. Reforms designed to unify country, reduce factionalism
  • 702

    Taiho Statutory Law

    Emerges in 702
  • 710

    Capital Moved to Nara

    Nara, also called Heijo-kyo, is the first permanent capital of Japan; sinification of government skyrockets, Buddhism widely distributed to populace, imperial rituals codified and literature gained prominence
  • 712

    Kojiki Written

  • 720

    Nihon Shoki Written

  • 725

    Tang Bureaucracy

    Emperor as head, then Grand Councillors; Academics, Chancellory, Dept. of State Affairs, Secretariat and Censorate underneath them. 9 Courts, 6 Ministries and 5 Depts part of Dept. of State. Commandries replaced by prefectures. Top level roles bled into each other frequently, control of paper and academics very important
  • 741

    Sutra of Golden Light Distributed to All Provinces

    Imperial declaration that Sutra of Golden Light be kept in every household and rituals conducted demonstrated centralisation of Japanese Buddhism, use of religion to unify people and strengthen state; sutra associated with protecting states from misfortune
  • 751

    Kaifuso Compiled

    Kaifuso, a collection of poems written in Chinese style, revealed a growing Chinese-like literati class in Japan, borrowing an appreciation for introspection, leisure, philosophy, art, writing and poetry from their Chinese counterparts. Japan's entry to stage of East Asian fine literature
  • 759

    Manyoshu Written

    In response to Chinese-influenced Kaifuso, the Manyoshu was a collection of poems and songs about Japanese people, themes and experiences in a much more distinct Japanese style; however, use of obscure and complicated characters made writing style fall out of favour within a few decades
  • 788

    Korean Civil Service Exams Started

    Civil service exams were implemented in a bid to copy Chinese governing styles, but candidates were only taken from higher aristocratic families and no social mobility was possible; never became a very important social institution, highly meritocratic or effective
  • 797

    Zoku Nihongi Compiled

    2nd of Rikkokushi, 6 Histories of Japan. Tells of events from 697 to 741 in 40 scrolls, written after court's move to Heian
  • 840

    Nihon Koki Compiled

    3rd of Rikkokushi texts, tells of history from 792 to 833; 10 of 40 scrolls remain in current day. Remarkable for continuity from preceding documents; despite political chaos, imperial historiographies are comprehensive
  • 869

    Zoku Nihon Koki Compiled

    4th of Rikkokushi texts, documents history from 833 to 850. Departs from first 3 Rikkokushi historiographies by recording things in greater detail; only 20 scrolls
  • 879

    Nihon Montoku Tenno Jitsuroku Compiled

    5th Rikkokushi document, focuses on period from 850 to 859, presumably in great details. Continues overall trend of historical periods covered by texts decreasing, analysis/detail of events increasing
  • 901

    Nihon Sandai Jitsuroku Compiled

    Last Rikkokushi document, covers history from 858 to 887 in a remarkable 50 scrolls. Publication occured in 1st year of Engi reign. All together, the Rikkokushi documents established a precedent for Japanese imperial historiography similar to Chinese counterpart, where detailed record of events and ritual meanings was used to guide proper conduct of successive rulers, keep cosmos in order through proper action. Rikkokushi documents administrative, very boring
  • 927

    Engi Shiki Compiled

    Historical book specially dedicated to recording ceremonies at court. Purpose of recording rituals is to prescribe proper execution for them, and therein shape ritual appropriateness. Ties to court's role as guarantors of cosmic order, even as aristocratic families, etc. wield the actual political power in Japan
  • 1086

    Zizhi Tongjian Written

    Sima Guang's historiography covered the 5th century bc to 10th ad, with the intent of providing moral lessons that guide governance; still didn't stray from objective lens. Also called Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance; really asserted tradition that history was used to derive lessons from past for current/future rulers
  • 1115

    Jurchen Jin Dynasty founded

    Northern Jurchen set up own state called Jin, putting pressure on Song dynasty and Koryo; Koryo must balance position between China and Jurchen, Song sees Koryo as possible avenue to negotiate with Jurchen through
  • 1124

    Xu Jing's Illustrated Account of Korea Written

    Text from Chinese diplomat who visited Korea, describing it as model Confucian kingdom, though subject to omissions of things the Koreans didn't want China to see
  • 1145

    Samguk Sagi compiled

    Written during the early Koryo period, refers back to Sima Qian's Shiji. Divided into 50 books
  • 1200

    Kagami Style Emerges

    Bakufu governments drastically change historiographical style, introducing a type of accessible writing called kagami. Containing less Chinese vocab, kagami texts were accessible to non-literati, down-to-earth and engaging. Glourified military actions and legitimised bakufu's right to rule
  • 1232

    Goseibai Shikimoku Written

    Constitutional document that challenges/draws on Shotoku Taishi's constitution, with 51 documents instead of 17; generally more specific and practical document - focuses on proper observance and care of Buddhism to unify state, then describes hierarchy and power of new political system. Hierarchy in kuge and buke established: Kuge have dojo (high elites) and jige (low elites), divided on right to meet sovereign. Buke have same for fudai and tozama, resp.
  • 1233

    Hojoki Written

    Historical document recording trouble of Hojo regency, from 1203 to 1233, notable mainly for its widespread use of Buddhist terminology, which marked shift away from shinto-based worship of Kytoto court. Follows rise of Zen Buddhism in Japan, which emphasised universality of suffering, justified military instability
  • 1245

    Samguk Yusa Written

    The Samguk Yusa, or Memorabilia of the 3 Kingdoms, is second major Korean historiography, with an emphasis on folktales and mythology
  • 1250

    Monogatori Style Develops

    Historical writing based on stories and narratives, monogatori texts mainly recorded deeds during the 12th century aristocratic infighting. Gunki monogatory legitimised and bolstered reputation of buke families, heike monogatori told of Genpei Wars between Minamoto and Taira, marking shift in power with vivid stories. Monogatori were easily spread to public, significant self-branding on part of bakufu
  • 1266

    Azuma Kagami Compiled

    Bakufu records from 1180 to 1266, documenting the Kamakura period. Because they weren't official imperial records, they didn't have to conform so closely to Chinese literary ideals, style was freer. Kamakura leaders felt pressured to record events, thereby proving their use, legitimising rule. Shows importance of historiography regardless of which societal faction is in control. Difference in style and content sets Kamakura leaders apart from dry, ritualistic imperial historiographers
  • 1500

    Taiheiki Written

    Historical epic recording the Hojo regency, Ashikaga Shogunate and Nanbokucho period. Factual deeds are related, but not in the dry or annalistic form of the Rikkokushi documents, tales are still memorable and accessible; interpretation of Nanbokucho period is that Go-Daigo tried to restore power to imperial court, failed
  • Tokuguawa Ieyasu Consolidates Libraries

    Libraries consolidated in attempt to control literature, therefore control which views were disseminated to public. Citizens' understanding of history and world dictated by shogunate. Official appointed to identify new ideology for reign, ends up promoting Confucian ideals
  • Dai Nihonshi

    Decisive history of Japan, promoted by the Mitogaku school of historiographical/philosophical thought, of which Tokugawa Mitsukuni and his son Tsunaeda were part. Massive undertaking of project showed importance of scholarship, intellect, historical records for justifying rule. Goes against Neoconfucian bias of Hayashi Razan's work
  • Honcho Tsugan Written

    Hayashi Razan's magnum opus about government and history, used to consolidate Tokugawa shogunate's identity and right to rule, implied morality and governance were intrinsically connected, ala Confucianism. Given to imperial house during Meiji restoration, greatly influenced their values
  • Meiji Restoration

    Imperial power restored as Japan seeks to make itself a nation along Western models, adopting a constitution highly influenced by Prussia's and undertaking serious industrial and scientific advancement
  • Period:
    2,000 BCE
    to
    AD 1

    Bronze Age in China

    Generally encompasses Shang and Zhou dynasties - period of immense political and cultural developments, beginnings of writing, historical thought, ritual practices; Sanxingdui culture was southern Shang contemporary, equally adept at bronzeworking
  • Period:
    1,600 BCE
    to
    1,046 BCE

    Shang Dynasty

    Earliest historically attested dynasty, noted for massive tomb complexes, human sacrifice, ritual use of elaborately-decorated bronze, development of writing through oracle bones
  • Period:
    1,046 BCE
    to
    -256 BCE

    Zhou Dynasty

    Longest Chinese dynasty, characterised by vast amounts of written records, Mandate of Heaven as historical legitimacy and bureaucracy headed by non-imperial noble families chosen for merit and skill. Admin tasks increasingly delegated to experts, imperial organisation of 6 Ministries established, economic and military reforms to emphasis efficiency
  • Period:
    1,046 BCE
    to
    -771 BCE

    Western Zhou Dynasty

    Expansion of dynastic power through Huanghe river settlements, full control of which was never achieved. Admin power transferred to skilled and educated nobles - basis for bureaucracy. Mandate of Heaven marked transition away from Shang ancestor worship, more abstract concept of cosmos; Established hierarchy
  • Period:
    -770 BCE
    to
    -256 BCE

    Eastern Zhou

    Second half of Zhou dynasty, sparked by imperial capital's move to Luoyang. Characterised by weakening of imperial rule, autonomous states and kingdoms seizing more power. 'Zhou' remained ritual centre of general area, but lacked real authority. Political breakdown and constant infighting led to anxiety over governance, ideology and values
  • Period:
    -770 BCE
    to
    -476 BCE

    Chunqiu Period

    First half of Eastern Zhou dynasty, when important philosophical writings were being postulated. Reflection on "Golden Age" of Western Zhou began, theme to be carried through all of Chinese history. Lack of central institutions meant advisors, teachers, philosophers travelled from state to state for patronage. Confucius' Chunqiu of Lu (Spring and Autumn Annals) written during this time
  • Period:
    -475 BCE
    to
    -221 BCE

    Warring States Period

    Latter half of Eastern Zhou, marked by complete breakdown of ritual legitimacy and chaos amongst autonomous states; military innovations included professional armies, iron/steel weapons - greater casualties and chaos, conscription of peasants into wars, state need for military protection. Breakdown of martial ritual prompted the Art of War
  • Period:
    -300 BCE
    to
    900

    Kofun Period

    Era of Japanese history characterised by tumulus mound-building, class division, political and social stratification, astrological symbolism borrowed from China; Kofun burial styles show similarities to cultures of Korea, imply cultural network
  • Period:
    -221 BCE
    to
    -206 BCE

    Qin Dynasty

    First centralised rule of Huanghe Valley in centuries; unified script and bureaucracy, standardised weights and measures, made regional administrators non-hereditary, non-familial bureaucrats. Local units called commandries, power unhappily divided between imperial government and aristocratic families
  • Period:
    -206 BCE
    to
    220

    Han Dynasty

    Culturally and politically significant period for China, drawing on standardisations and institutions of Qin; mathematical, economic, navigational advances developed. Qin commandries given to local aristocrats, entrenching power divide. Confucianism becomes state ideology, subject of cult, cosmology systemised, officials ranked into 3 grades with 3 subgrades
  • Period:
    -145 BCE
    to
    -90 BCE

    Sima Qian

    Grand Historian of the Han Dynasty and son of historian Sima Tan, he carried on his father's project of writing a comprehensive history of China and eventually published the Shiji, which covers 2500 years and is the first book of its kind
  • Period:
    AD 1
    to
    313

    Chinese Outpost in Korea

    Outpost established in Lelang, held for 300 years, not a sign of Chinese colonisation or anything
  • Period:
    184
    to
    220

    Malaise of Later Han

    Wei, Shu and Wu states sparked period of intense fighting, cultural response was esoteric escapism through Daoist alchemy, asceticism, hermit lifestyles as well as Buddhism. Xuanxue was prominent philosopher and advocate of all this
  • Period:
    313
    to
    668

    Three Kingdoms Period

    Koguryo, Baekjae and Silla fight for control of the Korean peninsula; Baekjae traded iron with Japan, as did Gaya Buddhism arrived in Koguryo in 372 and in Baekjae shortly after; Silla adopts Buddhism as state religion in 535, Confucian influence in governance from 6th century. Baekjae pursues diplomatic relations with China as it loses territory to Koguryo and Silla; by 668 Silla controls the peninsula
  • Period:
    538
    to
    710

    Asuka Period

    Important constitutional developments take place, including centralisation of government and arrival of Buddhism
  • Period:
    589
    to
    618

    Sui Dynasty

    Two-emperor dynasty that regrouped power after decline of Han; built Grand Canal from Hangzhou to Beijing to connect important cities and help tribute/trade, fell due to failed conquest of Korea, terrible last emperor
  • Period:
    618
    to
    907

    Tang Dynasty

    First true "Empire" in Chinese history, expands far westward + claims Central Asian oasis cities; trade connections reach all the way to Rome. Capital Chang'an has 1 mil residents, foreign influences welcome + fashionable. Exam system tiered from provincial to federal, centered on Wujing (5 Classics), high art + classical language. Decline came after An Lushan Rebellion in 8th century; overall, immense flowering of art and culture, especially literature
  • Period:
    662
    to
    794

    Ritsuryo State

    The imperial court tried to implement rule of law based on the Chinese-inspired ritsuryo codes, which sought to centralise authority in the emperor, legitimise rule through state-sponsored Buddhism and Confucian governing principles and protect the state through adherence to rituals of shared cosmology
  • Period:
    668
    to
    901

    Unified Silla Rule

    Silla defeats Baekjae and Koguryo by siding with Tang China, integrates elites into holy bones system as true bonk rank; expanded local government and had 5 capitals, creates civil exams and Confucian Academy, diplomatic ties with Tang. Staunch inequality created by bone rank system leads to Confucian institutions, wealth, being available only for elites; their concentration of power causes Silla to fragment by 901
  • Period:
    710
    to
    794

    Nara Period

    Capital exists at Nara/Heijo-kyo, ritsuryo state has power, cosmology, language and government organised along Chinese model; Japan asserts self as part of wider Chinese-influenced network. State gradually loses power, becomes ritually ossified
  • Period:
    784
    to
    794

    Japanese Capital is Nagaoka

    Capital is moved to Nagaoka,but remained there for only 10 years due to dissatisfying feng shui of location.
  • Period:
    794
    to
    1185

    Heian Period

  • Period:
    794
    to
    1192

    Kenmon System

    Political system that took hold after decline of ritsuryo; imperial house wasn't supreme, largely ignored in favour of power network spread among kuge (aristocrats), buke (warriors) and monasteries. Monasteries like Kofukuji and Enryakuji gathered large tracts of land and peasant armies called sohei, became like own feudal estates
  • Period:
    918
    to
    1392

    Koryo Dynasty

    Claims power vacuum from Silla, founder is King T'aejo; centralises power through Slave Review Act (frees aristocrats' slaves), more meritocratic civil exams, aristocratic purges. Modeled on Tang, openly supports Confucianism. Early period establishes institutions, middle (Choson) period sees them weakened by Jin invaders, later Koryo period by Mongols
  • Period:
    960
    to
    1279

    Song Dynasty

    Unifies China after Five Dynasties period (end of Tang rule), administered as North and South: Northern capital is Kaifeng, Southern is Hangzhou, thoughorthern admin weakened by nomadic incursions. Exam system and social mobility strengthened, Neoconfucian philosophical revival happens, gunpowder, printing and compasses revolutionised technology
  • Period:
    1086
    to
    1192

    Insei Era

    Emperors cloister themselves in powerful monasteries and manage affairs during their "retirement", came about as merging of monastic roles with imperial positions; emperor sought to make Buddhist monasteries and disciplines a tool of state by mediating arguments and debates between powerful schools of North and South (Yuima-e of Southern Hosso school, Mihakko which combined all schools)
  • Period:
    1170
    to
    1270

    Choson Period

    Middle Koryo period, with Koryo adopting some elements from powerful northern Jin Dynasty to prevent invasion; Chinese diplomat Xi Jing describes use of Jurchen imperial system in Korea as threat to Confucianism; government is ruled by military
  • Period:
    1180
    to
    1185

    Genpei Wars

    Fighting between Minamoto and Taira clans that felled the Heian court and led to the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate, arrival of bakufu rule
  • Period:
    1185
    to
    1333

    Kamakura Period

    Bakufu (military) rule begins as the Minamoto clan officially takes charge of governmental affairs, court is relegated to puppet role in Kyoto; Hojo clan soon assumes control
  • Period:
    1192
    to

    Bakufu Rule

    The military officially seizes power, while the imperial court is kept as a ritual safeguard from metaphysical threats. Governing structure includes mandokoro (executive dept.), samurai-dokoro ("Board of Retainers", guards and criminal jurisdiction), gokenin (admin with shugo, governors and jito, manor lords and daimyo nobles) and monchujo, the civil judiciary. Eventually fell due to disaffected lower military nobles, called tozama, in 19th century.
  • Period:
    1203
    to
    1336

    Hojo Regency

    The Hojo family become the dominant nobles in the Kamakura Shogunate, but never officially seized power or declared themselves rulers. Hojo emblem found on many important temples, opulent decoration, etc.Another example of how Japanese governance fractured among aristocratic family lines
  • Period:
    1270
    to
    1392

    Late Koryo Period

    End of Koryo era, with Mongols ruling the kingdom. Mongols in Korea are anti-Buddhist, effigies and statues of Buddha are destroyed
  • Period:
    1271
    to
    1368

    Yuan Dynasty

    Mongol rulers head Chinese imperial systems, move capital to Beijing and greatly expand territory; Nanzhao (modern Yunnan) claimed for China. Yuan dynasty was Golden Age of Drama and Theatre, but weakened by natural disasters, rebellions and weak emperors
  • Period:
    1336
    to
    1573

    Ashikaga Shogunate

    Shogunate set up by Ashikaga Takauji after rebellion against growing power of Hojo family within Kamakura; first years plagued by stubborn former Kamakura leader trying to set up own breakaway state. Functional power hindered by fact that Ashikaga weren't major landholders
  • Period:
    1338
    to
    1392

    Nambokucho Period

    Nambokucho or North and South Courts was the governmental dualism that existed during the early years of the Ashikaga Shogunate. Kamakura shogun Go-Daigo didn't want to cede power, set up breakaway court in South. Another reflection of how embattled and fractured Japanese governance was
  • Period:
    1368
    to

    Ming Dynasty

    Last dynasty ruled by Han ethnicity, inherited hydrological problems of Yuan. Eunuchs take increasing power in governance - up to 12,600 live and work in Forbidden City. Zheng He's exploration of Indian Ocean famous, but trade and foreign influences eventually curbed, protectionism practiced. Literature saw greater publishing, increased literacy, development of writer-intellectual class
  • Period:
    1392
    to

    Choson Dynasty in Korea

  • Period:
    1573
    to

    Sengoku Jidai

    Sengoku Jidai or Japan's version of the Warring States period, characterised by extreme violence and chaos. Stability hinged on extremely fragile alliances between daimyo; political fragmentation reached critical levels, essentially protracted civil war. Ended with Tokugawa Ieyasu's foundation of Tokugawa Shogunate
  • Period: to

    Tokugawa Shogunate

    Last government under bakufu rule, increasingly threatened by Western governing ideals in later years, revival of imperial power. Capital was moved to Edo, now Tokyo
  • Period: to

    Qing Dynasty

    Last Chinese dynasty, headed by Manchus; struggled to formulate China's place in a Western-dominated world, humiliated by Opium Wars, economic downturns, modernisation efforts; Confucianism and ritual traditions vilified as hindrances to modernity
  • Period: to

    Mootori Norinaga

    Reacting against Chinese style of historiography, he dedicated his life to deciphering the Kojiki; eventually concluded it was mostly sentimental, but established mythological and ethical purity of earlier periods in Japanese history. Norinaga promoted Kokugaku or nativist thoughts, slowly evolved into rampant nationalism