Native American Civil Rights

By velizvi
  • Indian Trade and Intercourse Act

    Indian Trade and Intercourse Act
    The Indian Trade and Intercourse Act regulated trade between the Native Americans and European settlers. Also the interaction between Native and Non-Native Americans were under federal control. This is when efforts for assimilation first began.
  • Land Act of 1804

    Land Act of 1804
    The U.S. government gave the first official notice to Native Americans to move west. The land that was initially inhabited by the Native Americans was put up for sale to encourage Americans to settle out west.
  • Johnson vs. M'intosh

    Johnson vs. M'intosh
    Illinois and Piankeshaw Indians sold land to a man named Thomas Johnson and then sold the same land to the U.S. government. The Supreme Court ruled that citizens could not purchase Native American land and only the U.S. government had access to this land.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    The Indian Removal Act was passed by Congress Under Andrew Jackson's presidency. This law allowed President Jackson to negotiate with southern tribes for their removal onto Native American reservations in the west in exchange for their homeland.
  • Cherokee Nation vs. State of Georgia

    Cherokee Nation vs. State of Georgia
    The Cherokee nation sued Georgia for limiting their sovereignty and and passing laws that went against the U.S. Constitution. The Supreme Court ruled that Native Americans were not U.S. citizens or independent nations. But it set Natives as a "domestic dependent nation."
  • Florida Law

    Florida Law
    A new law in Florida made it illegal for any Native Americans to remain in Florida. This made all Natives leave Florida and have to settle elsewhere.
  • Second Seminole War

    Second Seminole War
    The second Seminole war was the most terrible of three wars. These wars were fought between the U.S. government and the Seminole people. The U.S. spent more money on this war alone than what was budgeted for Indian removal.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    Even though the Supreme Court had ruled that the Cherokee had the right to stay on their lands, President Jackson sent federal troops and forced about 16,000 Cherokee Indians to be removed and settle further west. About 4,000 Natives died during this process.
  • Homestead Act

    Homestead Act
    This act was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln. It made Native American land become available for all Americans. The U.S. government would give 160 acres of land to any settlers who moved west, encouraging many Americans to move.
  • Wounded Knee Massacre

    Wounded Knee Massacre
    The Lakota tribe was ordered to give in all their weapons and a deaf man did not receive the instructions. After his firearm went off a large number of the tribe was killed. Over 150 men, women, and children were killed and 51 were wounded.
  • World War I

    World War I
    When the U.S. entered WWI Native Americans were still drafted to serve in the military. Many Natives resisted the draft because they were not considered U.S. citizens and didn't have many rights, but were still expected to join the war efforts.
  • Indian Citizenship Act

    Indian Citizenship Act
    This new law allowed Native Americans to attain the right to vote along with other rights and they gained citizenship.
  • Indian New Deal

    Indian New Deal
    An attempt was made to revitalize Native American traditions including cultural, government, and spiritual. The U.S. government realized that Native American was important to conserve.
  • World War II

    World War II
    About 25,000 Native Americans served in the military and about 40,000 other Natives joined to the workforce to help with the war efforts. Despite this help, Native Americans still were't treated completely equally.
  • Trujillo vs. Garley

    Trujillo vs. Garley
    Many Native Americans still weren't being given the right to vote. The Supreme Court ruled that states must allow Native Americans to vote.
  • Relocation

    Native Americans were facing high levels of unemployment so the government created many relocation programs. These programs were made for Natives to move to urban areas and therefore have higher chances of attaining jobs.
  • Indian Education Act

    Indian Education Act
    This act allowed funding for bicultural and bilingual programs. Improved overall educational opportunities for Native Americans.
  • Indian Child Welfare Act

    Indian Child Welfare Act
    Allowed Non-Native Americans to take custody of Native American children. Also allowed tribal courts to hear adoption and guardianship cases.
  • Native American Languages Act

    Native American Languages Act
    Act that promised to "preserve, protect, and promote the rights and freedom of Native Americans to use, practice, and develop Native American languages."
  • Native American Heritage Month

    Native American Heritage Month
    President Clinton declared November of every year to be Native American Heritage Month.