• Liberalism

    Defined by the desire for more freedom, including laissez-faire economics and equality under the law. Took place post French and industrial revolution. Inspired the Bill of Rights and suffrage movements
  • Romanticism

    Lots of emotion and inner feeling gave rise to a sense of individualism. Used drugs to augment emotions and create art, including writers and musicians. Gothic architecture also came during this time period
  • Nationalism

    First established during the French Revolution. Believed any community deserves its own government. Led to the unification of people and the desire for freedom among different groups.
  • Ideology of Conservatism

    Ideology of Conservatism
    Conservative thinkers: Burke, Metternich, Maistre all wrote about post revolution politics. they wanted to maintain order and go back to the original political authority and religion. Anti-revolution, anti-individualism, and supported monarchs
  • Russian Tsars

    Russian Tsars
    Russia trailed behind the rest of the world, focusing mainly on agricultural and autocratic systems. Alexander I was enlightened, relaxing censorship and expanding free speech. He also made education reform. He became more liberal after Napoleon, but never made a constitution or abolished serfdom
  • The Revolt of Latin America

    The Revolt of Latin America
    Led by Simon Bolivar, the revolt of Latin america helped liberate Colombia and Venezuela from Spanish bourbons. Peru and Chile were liberated by Jose de San Martin. The United States and Britain protected Latin america from Europe through the Monroe doctrine.
  • The Restoration of France

    The Restoration of France
    Louis XVII addressed the revolution by accepting the Napoleonic code, which gained him some popularity. Yet others say he did not do enough.
  • Italian States and Spain

    Italian States and Spain
    Congress of Vienna established 9 reactionary states in Italy. Ferdinand VII was a bourbon and put on the throne. He fought with legislature and tore up the constitution, being overthrown by officers and the middle class.
  • The Peace Settlement

    The Peace Settlement
    Britain, Prussia, Austria, and Russia made a quadruple alliance established at the congress of Vienna. It returned Bourbon power in France
  • Corn Law

    Corn Law
    Tories placed taxes on foreign grains in an attempt to keep the landlords supplying locals with grain. This only hurt the poor, which caused the lower classes to lean towards the Whigs.
  • Germany

    The Congress of Vienna established the German Confederation. Germany was comprised of 28 states, Prussia being the most liberal. This process abolished serfdom and expanded education
  • Peterloo Massacre

    Peterloo Massacre
    The massacre occurred at protests of the Corn Law. The military stepped in and killed eleven people.
  • The Principle of Intervention

    The Principle of Intervention
    This decision allowed European powers to intervene and restore monarchs to states undergoing revolutions. This agreement ended revolutions
  • The Greek Revolt

    The Greek Revolt
    The Principle of Intervention aided the Greeks against the Ottomans. The Treaty of Adrianople granted Greece independence.
  • Emergence of an Ordered Society

    Emergence of an Ordered Society
    Crime increased, causing new police forces. Serjents appeared in France and Bobbies in Britain
  • Revolutions in Belgium and Poland

    Revolutions in Belgium and Poland
    The attempt to merge catholic Belgium with protestant Dutch Republic failed. Belgians revolted and Europe recognized its independence. Poland attempted to get rid of Russian control.
  • New Reform Legislation

    New Reform Legislation
    Parliament was wealthy landowners vs. wealthy industrialists. Land owners suggested industrial regulation but the industrialists shot it down.
  • Reform Act of 1832

    Reform Act of 1832
    Recognized the change the Industrial Revolution Brought. Disenfranchised 56 rotten boroughs and enfranchised 42 cities and towns. There was new representation by industrial workers but it mainly favored upper middle class.
  • Poor Laws of 1834

    Poor Laws of 1834
    Made paupers lives miserable so they would seek work. Created workhouses that were intentional cruel.
  • Germanic Revolution

    Germanic Revolution
    Inspired by the French Revolution, the German revolution established the Frankfurt assembly, although it was unsuccessful. A constitution was made and censorship abolished.
  • United States Liberalism

    United States Liberalism
    The US constitution was inspired by nationalism and liberalism. Economically conservative and politically liberal, but the liberties of the constitution were not granted to all.
  • Italian Revolution

    Italian Revolution
    Mazzini unified Italy after the 1830 revolution in Italy. a constitution was made and the desire to be free from Austria. Austria suppressed these rebellions, although the Piedmont constitution survived.
  • Austrian Revolution

    Austrian Revolution
    This revolution was inspired by the French Revolution and was successful in getting new legislature. The protests weakened Ferdinand I
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    Liberalism and Nationalism rose even though conservatism was still widespread. Food shortages and corruption led to the revolution, creating a new constitution and the Second Republic
  • The Failures of 1848

    The Failures of 1848
    Liberals didn't extend enough suffrage to the working class, divisions among ethnic groups also brought tensions. Hungarians wanted independence from Austria but would not support Slovenes, Croats, or Serbs.