Mussolini Timeline

  • Formation of an Independent Italy

    Formation of an Independent Italy
    This picture illustrates Italy's slow progression toward unification which was was completed (with the exception of the Papal State) in 1861. The image also represents the spread of liberalism through Italy and the rising desire for unification among liberals.
  • Papal States taken over by the new nation of Italy

    Papal States taken over by the new nation of Italy
    This image shows the dates when several parts of Italy were annexed. Having a visual representation of the annexation of the Papal States relative to the rest of Italy is significant because it shows how long the unification process took and consequently how important the takeover of Rome was to Italy.
  • Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)

    Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)
    The overwhelming strength of the Ethiopian forces is illustrated in this image as well as the compromised state of the Italian forces. The illustration represents Italy's massive failure not only in the Battle of Adowa but in the war as a whole which is significant because no other European power had been defeated in the way the Italians lost to the Ethiopians. This loss made Italy feel the need to prove itself which led to the war with Libya.
  • Italy invades and takes over Libya

     Italy invades and takes over Libya
    Italy's war with Libya was far different than with Ethiopia since Italy had more technological advancements (which is seen in the selected image) and Libya's forces weren't nearly as strong as Ethiopia's. In this war, Italy felt more like a European power and pushed forth with its imperialist agenda
  • Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti

     Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti
    Even though the newspaper was from May 1915, this image is still important to include because it highlights Italian socialists' firmness in socialist values by protesting the war. This strong anti-war rhetoric was also adopted by Mussolini while he was editor of Avanti and he made several articles advocating for neutrality which was starkly different from his beliefs from 1915 onward.
  • Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I

    Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I
    This image depicts a symbol Mussolini used to represent fascism through the duration of his reign. In this case, it illustrates how Mussolini shifted from socialism to extreme nationalism as syndicalist and republican groups were created in 1914. He began to advocate for intervention in the war which was why he was kicked out.
  • Treaty of London

    Treaty of London
    At the end of the war, Italy demanded all of the land promised in this treaty, which are pictured in this map (Trieste, southern Tyrol, northern Dalmatia, etc.). Italy signed the Treaty agreeing to fight in the First World War on the side of the Entente
  • Beginning of Biennio Rosso

    Beginning of Biennio Rosso
    There were strikes and factory and land occupations
    Led by trade unions, peasant leagues, and over a million workers, an example of which is seen in the picture. It started as a result of high unemployment, which had risen to over 2 million.
  • Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan

    Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan
    118 people met Milan and for these combat groups and were later known as the “Fascists of the First Hour. The goal was to bring together nationalists and socialists. To do this the Fascist Programme was produced, however, they were truly brought together by a hatred of the liberal state
  • D'Annunzio takes Fiume

    D'Annunzio takes Fiume
    He led 2000 armed men to the city of Fiume (which Italy wanted but did not receive from the peace treaties). They took control of the city for 15 months in defiance of the liberal Italian government.
  • Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti

    Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti
    Pictured is Giolitti in which Mussolini formed an alliance with. It occurred in result of Mussolini privately reassuring Giolitti that the fascist revolution was not to be taken seriously. They formed the anti-socialist National Bloc for the upcoming May elections.
    Mussolini continued violence as about 100 socialists were killed during the election campaign
  • Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader

    Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader
    First Mussolini angered the ras by signing the Pact of Pacification and followed that by resigning from the Fascist Central Committee in attempt to outmanoeuvre the ras. Then Mussolini suggested that the members of the Fasci di Combattimento reform the organization in the Partito Nazionale Fascista (PNF). Then he persuaded the Fascist National Congress to elect him as leader. He would end the truce with the socialists and order all branches to organize action squads.
  • March on Rome and Mussolini Becomes PM

    March on Rome and Mussolini Becomes PM
    The photo exemplifies the importance of the march for the fascists' party’s rise of influence and power within Italian politics, and the importance of Mussolini’s leadership based on the admiration he is receiving from the people surrounding him in the photo.
  • Acerbo Law

    Acerbo Law
    The photo exemplifies Mussolini's strong collaboration with Acerbo, and his loyalty to the promises of the fascist party. The photo additionally conveys his eagerness to do everything in his power to "legitimately" ensure the success of the fascist party within Italian politics.
  • Corfu Incident

    Corfu Incident
    This photo is significant because it portrays the strong pressure Italy was placing on Greece for reparations and justice. The action taken by Mussolini to order troops to remain in Corfu convey Mussolini’s devotion to fascist ideology to take action and to intimidate those who may undermine his power/reputation.
  • Aventine Secession

    Aventine Secession
    This photo clearly demonstrates the liberal politician's desperate attempt to vote Mussolini out. The hill serves as a strong symbolism of protest for the socialists of Italy, and conveys their feelings of abusement of power from the left's side.
  • Matteotti Crisis

    Matteotti Crisis
    The political cartoon vividly portrays Mussolini's determination to stop rumor's of Matteotti's murder, and to suppress any evidence Matteotti could've potentially presented against him and the fascist party which could have undermined his rise in power.
  • Battle for Grain

    Battle for Grain
    This photo is significant because it does not only have subtle propaganda methods to convince the people of Mussolini's devotion towards a self-sufficient economy, and a man who is willing to work with the people and support farmers. This did not only uphold Mussolini's image as a leader but strengthened support and admiration towards his economic policies.
  • Locarno Treaty Signed

    Locarno Treaty Signed
    The photo reveals Mussolini's willingness to cooperate with other nations to pursue international peace and also benefit from the pact which could restore Italy's global reputation and introduce the country as a strong fascist nation.
  • Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira

    Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira
    The Battle for Land was a continuation of the Battle for Grain and had the goal to create more farmland through things such as draining swamps. The Battle for the Lira was the changing of the Lira's value in order to restore its value abroad to allow Italy to continue importing, and also to top the internal prices rises. This is a picture of the Pontine Marshes which were drained during the Battle for Land.
  • Battle for Births

    Battle for Births
    Starting in 1927 and ending sometime between 1938 and 1950 (information varies), this was a campaign by Mussolini to try and get women to stop working and only have babies so that there would be more men to serve in the army. It had many incentives such as lower taxes for bigger families, and married men being more likely to get hired than single men. This is a picture of a Mother's Medal which would be given to the women who birthed the most kids in her live in her Italian province (93 total).
  • Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed

    Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed
    This was a treaty signed by Italy, Britain, the US, and many others within the League of Nations. It made those who signed promise to not go to war in order to resolve any type of dispute. Many now consider it to be faulty because it did not stop WWII, nor was it a very enforceable treaty. This political cartoon illustrates how it was easy for everyone to promise their agreeance to the treaty, and then immediately ignore it like a child would to a parent's rules.
  • Lateran Treaty with Pope

    Lateran Treaty with Pope
    Mussolini appeals to Catholics, and in 1929 he has secret negotiations with Cardinal Gasparri (senior Vatican official). This results in 3 Lateran agreements which end the conflict between the papacy and the Italian State. The terms include things such as the Vatican City becoming a papal sovereignty independent state. This picture illustrates the signing of the treaty by Mussolini and the current Pope at that time, Pius XI. It shows how the relations between the two quickly became diplomatic.
  • Abyssinian Crisis

    Abyssinian Crisis
    This crisis began and resulted from the Walwal (now known as Welwel) Incident which was a skirmish between Italians and Ethiopians that resulted in many deaths and increased tensions. Italy really wanted to colonize Ethiopia and succeed after the second Italo-Ethiopian War which resulted in the undermining of the League of Nations and encouraged Italy to ally with Nazi Germany. This political cartoon shows how Italy completed ignored the League of Nations and then eventually left it.
  • Stresa Front

    Stresa Front
    This was an agreement between Italy, France, and Britain against Hitler and his intents to rearm Germany (which went against the Treaty of Versailles). This treaty fell apart quite quickly when Britain signed a secret navy treaty with Germany, and Italy felt betrayed so it invaded Ethiopia and also motivated Italy to stop opposing Hitler. This political cartoon shown provides a visual understanding of how weak the Stresa Front was to begin with, and how it was doomed to fail.
  • Italian Involvement in Spanish Civil War

    Italian Involvement in Spanish Civil War
    The political cartoon shows how Germany and Italy supported the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War despite signing the "Non-Intervention Agreement," a European treaty to not get involved in the Civil War in Spain. Italy helped aide the nationalists militarily because of the group's similarities to fascism.
  • Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty Signed

    Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty Signed
    The image shows Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler making a public appearance after the treaty was signed. It fortified relations between the two nations and leaders. The salute Mussolini is seen partaking in was latter adopted by Hitler's Nazi Germany, showing levels of assimilation or unity between the two.
  • Munich Agreement

    Munich Agreement
    The map shows the territories that changed under the Munich Agreement. The Sudetenland was under Czechoslovakia before the agreement. Germany, Britain, Italy, and France allowed Germany to annex the land with the notion Germany would no longer seek any new territorial gain.
  • Italian Invasion of Albania

    Italian Invasion of Albania
    The cartoon is a political propaganda glorifying the Italian Invasion of Albania. Occupation of the country meant easier access to trade and military routes for Italy. Success from Italy's invasion helped prop up its agenda for international influence/control.
  • Italy Enters WWII With Germany

    Italy Enters WWII With Germany
    The political cartoon shows a German tank and Italian wooden horse heading into war. Italy joined the war once Germany had occupied Paris, making them look as a 'follower' as opposed to a leader in the war effort. Mussolini hesitated to enter the war due to a lack of material preparation. The cartoon ties in these significant historical themes.
  • Mussolini Falls from Power

    Mussolini Falls from Power
    The coup that brought down Mussolini was largely due to to Italy's failure during the war. Reports from the New York Times champion Mussolini's fall as a way to end the war and provoke political change in Italy.
  • Mussolini is Killed

    Mussolini is Killed
    The cartoon subtly references events surrounding Mussolini's death. After he was assassinated en route to Switzerland, Mussolini's body was displayed publicly to symbolize the end of fascism.