History of Benito Mussolini

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    Formation of an independent Italy

    This was a long political, social, and at times violent movement to unify the Italian speaking states within the Italian peninsula. Many Italian leaders desired freedom from foreign rule and Italian nationalism.
  • Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy

    Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy
    After Napoleon removed his men from northern Italy to fight Germany, the Italian nationalists took advantage of the opportunity. They flooded the weakened Papal States and annexed it and Rome into the Italian nation. A plebiscite later made Rome the capital of Italy. The photo is of Victor Emmanuel the 2nd, who led the troops into Papal.
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    Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa

    Miscommunications with the agreement to peace known as the Treaty of Wuchale led to Italy claiming that Ethiopia was an Italian protectorate and a war breaking out between the two nations. While Italy experienced some victories early on, they were outnumbered and they, and their Eritrean askaris allies, were defeated and Italy was forced out of Ethiopia.
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    Italy invades and takes over Libya

    Italy desired complete control over the resource rich nation of Libya, which at the time was controlled by the Ottoman Empire. The war out a great deal of stress on the Ottoman empire, and with threats from several other, smaller European nations coming to exploit this weakness, the Ottoman Empire surrendered control of Libya to Italy. Though, this war did also hurt the Italian economy.
  • Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti

    Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti
    During his time at Avanti, Mussolini was a popular figure within the socialist movement. With his influence within this paper, who published articles that spurred on and supported the worker strikes at the time. He also, however, used these revolts to further his own political and socialist goals, showing that even early on these were facets of his personality The image is of an article published by Avanti.
  • Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I

    Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I
    War is seen as an imperialist form of violence that exists solely for the sake of the rich. Because of this, socialists in Italy supported Italy remaining neutral in WW1. Mussolini, however, believed that the war could help end the existing political structures within Europe in order to bring about a socialist revolution. His pro-WW1 sentiments got Mussolini kicked from the party. The image of the logo of the PSI, Mussolini's former socialist party.
  • Treaty of London

    Treaty of London
    The Entente powers wanted Italy to join them because of their border with the central power of Austria. In order to convince Italy, which had a growing sense of extreme nationalism, the Entente promised Italy the lands of Trieste, southern Tyrol, northern Dalmatia. They were also promised a lot of money. The photo is of Italian politician, Antonio Salandra, who negotiated the treaty.
  • Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan

    Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan
    • Fascist political party formed in 1919. Held Ultranationalist ideals and intended to attract Italian veterans to their cause. Gained a reputation for using paramilitary tactics and later turned into the National Fascist Party in 1921
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    Beginning of Biennio Rosso

    After WW1, Italy was plagued by large amounts of debt and unemployment. It also led to a large number of worker strikes and many workers moving towards political extremes like communism and fascism. This, however, allowed the Blackshirts (a fascist group) to assert their power since they began to crack down on communist groups. The Blackshirts were very popular with conservatives and employers.
  • D’Annunzio takes Fiume

    D’Annunzio takes Fiume
    Gabriele D'Annunzio was an ultranationalist who was angered by the giving of Fiume to Croatia. D’Annunzio then led an army to take and hold onto Fiume, declaring it an independent state. He later surrendered the city after declaring war on Italy in 1920.
  • Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti

    Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti
    Mussolini forms an alliance with Giolitti in 1921, forming the Italian Fasces of Combat in order to fight the growing communist party. Giolitti was tolerant and accepting of the growing fascist party for this reason
  • March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister

    March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister
    Took place in October of 1921. Was a mass demonstration/coupe by the PNF where members of the party and the black shirts (paramilitary organization) marched onto Rome and resulted in Mussolini being given the title of Prime Minister by King Victor Emmanuel III
  • Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader

    Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader
    The PNF was formed on November 9th, 1921. The party was rooted in nationalist ideals and strove to connect the Italian people under one state. Mussolini founded the party, and was quickly elected its leader
  • Acerbo Law passed

    Acerbo Law passed
    The Acerbo Law was passed in 1923 in response to the need of the fascist party to gain more power in the government. It stated that whichever party gained the most votes would gain two thirds of the seats in parliament. This allowed the fascists to gain a majority of the seats during the 1924 election.
  • Corfu Incident

    Corfu Incident
    • A military and political dispute between Italy in Greece during 1923. Started after Enrico Tellini was murdered while working to help resolve a border dispute between Greece and Albania. In response Mussolini ordered the city of Corfu to be occupied by military forces. A settlement was later achieved, and the crisis passed, with Mussolini being praised in the Italian press.
  • Aventine Secession

    Aventine Secession
    150 chamber deputies on the left and center parts of the political spectrum decided to leave the chamber because of their opposition of Mussolini. This happened when Giacomo Matteotti was the victim of a political murder. This all happened in June of 1924. The photo is of a protest surrounding the Aventine secession
  • Matteotti Crisis

    Matteotti Crisis
    The murder of Giacomo Matteotti in 1924, who was an outspoken opposer of fascism. He was later murdered by several members of the Fascist Party, and when it was discovered that leaders of the fascist party were responsible, the public outcry led to the Aventine Secession of several parties, which only strengthened the Fascists.
  • Battle for Grain

    Battle for Grain
    The battle for grain was a campaign made by Mussolini to reduce reliability on imports for wheat and other grains. The campaign began in 1925 and ended in 1939. The campaign was successful on making Italy reliant on themselves for grains, but it harmed other types of agriculture in the country. The photo is of Italian wheat farmers.
  • Locarno Treaty signed

    Locarno Treaty signed
    The Locarno treaty was made to solve territorial disputes after World War 1 to make sure no attacks would happen. The treaty was signed on December 1st, 1925, in London, England. The photo is the process of the Locarno treaty being made.
  • Battle for Births

    Battle for Births
    The battle for births was a campaign by Mussolini to increase the population of Italy to make it stronger. Mussolini implemented measures to encourage reproduction and having children to the Italian people. The campaign began in 1927 and by 1950 the population in Italy had increased by 50 million people. The photo is of Italian babies with a nurse.
  • Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira

    Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira
    The battle for land was a campaign by Mussolini to turn Italian marshlands into arable land to boost the agricultural output of Italy that started in 1928. The battle for the Lira was economic policy by the fascists in the 1920s to boost Italy’s economy and make Italy more powerful on the world stage. The battle for land was one part of the battle for Lira. The photo is of Mussolini in a field.
  • Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed

    Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed
    The Kellogg-Briand treaty was a treaty between 15 nations that outlawed war in effort to prevent another world war. The treaty was signed on August 27th, 1928, but was not enforced greatly by the league of nations which eventually allowed the second world war to start. The photo is of the representatives for all of the countries signing the treaty in the white house.
  • Lateran Treaty with Pope

    Lateran Treaty with Pope
    The Lateran treaty was a treaty between Italy and the Pope. The treaty made Rome the capital of Italy and recognized Vatican City as an independent nation for the Pope. It also established Rome as the center for Catholicism. The treaty was signed on June 7th 1929. The photo is of Vatican City after the signing of the Lateran treaty.
  • Italian involvement in the Spanish Civil War

     Italian involvement in the Spanish Civil War
    Met with Spanish generals and politicians that opposed the second republic. Initially, he failed to provide aid to those he promised. He eventually did send aid to the Spanish. The image is propaganda of the Second Republic against the Italians.
    Trans- Let's Stand against the Italy invasion of Spain
  • Stresa Front

    Stresa Front
    The Stresa front was an agreement between the leaders of Italy, France, and Britain to renesure the Locarno treaty. This was to make sure that Austria could still exist. Also, it was held to make sure Germany made no more attempts to change the treaty of Versailles. This was held in April of 1935. The photo is from the Stresa front.
  • Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed

    Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed
    Between Italy and Germany, and eventually Japan. This treaty allied these countries as the ‘axis powers’ in WW2, against the allies. The image is of Hitler and Mussolini as they had become allies. Not specifically at the treaty signing.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    an agreement of European powers allowed Germany to annex Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia). This was done in order to prevent confronting war. The image is that of the European leaders at the conference coming to their agreement.
  • Italy invades Albania

    Italy invades Albania
    Italy wanted control of the seaports. Italy had also wanted the land taken from Austro-Hungary, which was lost in WW1. This was the major reason Mussolini wanted this land. Started invasion at the seaports. The image is a picture of Italian troops occupying Albania.
  • Italy enters WW II on side of Germany

    Italy enters WW II on side of Germany
    with the collapse of France, Italy had acted upon the Pact of Steel with Germany. The image is that of a newspaper, that is stating that Italy has declared war on France. And that the allies were reacting.
  • Mussolini brought down by coup during WW II

     Mussolini brought down by coup during WW II
    Mussolini is voted out by the grand council. He was arrested immediately after by the king. The image is of Mussolini being taken by the Nazi Germans to lead the German puppet state in northern Italy.
  • Abyssinian Crisis

    Abyssinian Crisis
    began with the Walwal incident. It was a lasting crisis between Italy and Ethiopia which was at the time Abyssinia. Italy eventually left the league of nations and undermine the league eventually taking occupancy of Ethiopia. The image is a map of how Ethiopia had been invaded by Italian Solimila.
  • Mussolini killed

    Mussolini killed
    Shot and killed by a communist partisan after fleeting Milan. Several people have been blamed for his killing, and in Italy, it became a rumor. The image is that of Mussolini's hanging, presumed after he had been shot.