Mussolini's Rise to Power

  • Formation of an united Italian nation

    Formation of an united Italian nation
    The Italian nationalist movement succeeds in creating a united Italian nation. Victor Emmanuel II and his political allies take control of Sicily, Papal states, and Austrian controlled parts of Italy. The photo is a photograph of the first king of the united Italian Kingdom.
  • Period: to

    Independent Italy until end of World War II

  • Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy

    Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy
    The Italian forces take the Papal states. Due to French assistance France annexed Rome, however, due to the Franco-Prussian War French troops withdraw. The photo is a map of the Papal States.
  • Mussolini's Birth

    Mussolini's Birth
    This was the year Mussolini was born.
  • Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa

    Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa
    After the unification of Italy, the Italians participated in the Scramble for Africa. Italians started the war with Ethiopia. Around half of the Ethiopian soldiers were armed with outdated guns. The Italian government underestimated the capabilities of the local leaders of Ethiopia to raise a retaliating force; ordering a march on the capital. This ill-advised haste caused humiliating Italian defeat. The photo is Ethiopian infantry armed with guns.
  • Italy invades and takes over Libya

    Italy invades and takes over Libya
    During World War I, Italy joins the side of the allies. In 1911 Italy invades Libya. This leads to the creation of the colony of Italian Libia. The photo is a group shot of infantry proudly gathering around the flag of their nation during the campaign.
  • Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I

    Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I
    Mussolini may have started as a Socialist but unlike his Socialist counterparts, he supported Italian involvement in World War One. Due to these beliefs, he was expelled from the party, as they were nationalistic in nature. The photo is a newspaper announcing Mussolini's expulsion from the socialist party.
  • Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti

    Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti
    Mussolini began his political career as a Socialist. He wrote newspaper articles for a socialist supporting newspaper. The photo is of Mussolini at the time of his Socialist beginnings.
  • Treaty of London

    Treaty of London
    The treaty of London was a hidden agreement with Italy and the allies. This pact stated that if Italy had joined in support of the allies they would be rewarded with the territory of what would instead become the coast of Yugoslavia. This broken deal outraged the Italians, contributing to the Italians anger with the future allies of World War Two. The photo is the Treaty of London.
  • Beginning of Biennio Rosso

    Beginning of Biennio Rosso
    Rise of Italian Socialist forces. The event name translates to the Red Years, this was a time of pro-socialist rioting and class tensions. The photo is a socialist protest.
  • Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan

    Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan
    The fascist group led by Mussolini was a political combat squad. These groups would attack Socialist or other political opposition groups. These attacks would go unpunished by the police, who disliked the rise of Socialist sentiments.The photo is the logo of the Fascist combat group.
  • D’Annunzio takes Fiume

    D’Annunzio takes Fiume
    D'Annunzio, a poet traveled to the city of Fiume and claimed it for Italy. This ideological campaign delegitimized the treaty of Versailles by showing that its terms could be ignored without reproductions. The photo is of the leaders of the campaign commanding Italian forces.
  • Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader

    Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader
    Mussolini creates a formal political party to compete for power with other political parties in a liberal system. This event shows how Mussolini is okay with working with the present political powers in Italy. This conflicts with the beliefs of Fascism. The continued deals with political entities would harm his reputation with the first fascists of Italy. The photo is the symbol of the fascists. It is a bundle of sticks held together. This represents the state's great power in political unity.
  • Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti

    Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti
    Giolitti, leader of liberal political forces in Italy supports the efforts of Mussolini. He does this because he is afraid of the rise of Socialism, so he joins forces with the violent fascist groups. This event gives supporters and power to Mussolini. This also puts fascists into parliament. The photo is of Giolitti.
  • March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister

    March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister
    Fascist combat groups planned to march on Rome. This event led to the current Monarch appointing Mussolini as prime minister. Mussolini didn't attend the march on Rome, instead, he hid on the border, so that he could escape in case the coup ended poorly. The photo is of the march on Rome, Mussolini, the leader, is not seen leading the march.
  • Corfu Incident

    Corfu Incident
    The Italians occupied the Greek island of Corfu. The Italians created the border delegation were killed in Greek land. In response, Mussolini ordered military bombardments. The campaign further delegitimized the League of Nations.
  • Matteotti Crisis

    Matteotti Crisis
    After the assassination of Socialist politician Matteotti, it was obvious that the Fascist combat groups were responsible. After a loss of significant loss of political support, Mussolini becomes aggressive by challenging his political opposition to have him arrested. Mussolini becomes the dictator of Italy. The photo is of Matteotti's funeral.
  • Aventine Secession

    Aventine Secession
    After the murder of Matteotti, non-fascist parliament members leave to protest the violent ways of the fascist party. This protest failed to catch the long term attention of the public, and the lack of opposition made it much easier for Mussolini to assume full control of the government as an absolute dictator. The photo is of the members of the protest marching out of the parliament.
  • Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed

    Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed
    This treaty declared that war was an illegal action to solve disputes among nations. While many countries signed, the treaty was ineffective at preventing war. This was because it didn't specify the definition of war, so countries ignored the treaty or took violent action without declaring war. It was first ignored by the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. This served to delegitimize the League who failed to control the ambitions of other nations. The photo is the signing of the treaty.
  • Locarno Treaty signed

    Locarno Treaty signed
    An agreement between France, Britain, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland to keep the borders of Western Europe as stated in the Treaty of Versailles. This event served to delegitimize the Treaty of Versailles by implying that the borders of Eastern Europe could be changed. This would assist Nazi Germany and Italy in territorial ambitions. Specifically Nazi invasion of Eastern European nations. The photo is the signing of this treaty.
  • Battle for Grain

    Battle for Grain
    This was an economic campaign. The goal of this was to promote the production of grain. Mussolini's motive for pushing greater production was to make the Italian nation less dependent on imports. While the production of grain increased, it came at the cost of other crops. This loss made the country more dependent on other good imports. For example, olive oil had to be imported due to shortage. The photo is of Mussolini threshing grain to show the importance of grain production.
  • Battle for Births

    Battle for Births
    An economic battle that was used to promote the creation of a larger workforce for both the economy and military. Single individuals had to pay extra tax, higher maternity benefits, medals rewarded to the exceptionally fertile. This battle was ultimately a failure. The birthrate went down during the campaign. In the photo Mussolini flaunts his large family to promote the ideal Italian household.
  • Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira

    Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira
    These campaigns attempted to make the nation less dependent on foreign nations. The battle for land was the push for the draining of swamps and marshes to make room for greater agricultural output. The battle for Lira was an attempt to improve the value of the nation's currency. Both of these battles weren't significant successes. They didn't improve the nation's self-sufficiency significantly. The photo is of Mussolini on a tractor, conveying the importance of the battle.
  • Lateran Treaty with Pope

    Lateran Treaty with Pope
    Mussolini makes a deal with the Pope. In exchange for poltical support, the church gets control of the Vatican, Catholicism is the official state inforced religion. Also, preists had to swear loyalty to the Fascist Pary. The photo is of Mussolini signing the treaty with the Pope of the Catholic church.
  • Acerbo Law passed

    Acerbo Law passed
    The Acerbo Law gave the party with majority of votes to have 66% of the delegates in parliament. While it may have only benefitted the Fascists who would rig the election, many supported this law. This was because the liberal government was viewed as too weak, due to gridlock. The photo is of the parliament after the election. The Acerbo Law can be seen, as the Fascist party holds 66% of delegates.
  • Stresa Front

    Stresa Front
    A coalition of France, Britain, Italy agreed to oppose German ambitions to rearm the nation. Italy's invasion of Ethiopia was partially ignored by France and Britain because they wished to be united with Italy against the greater threat of Nazi Germany. The coalition is dissolved quickly. The photo is a political cartoon of the event. The photo depicts the conference as a weak confrontation, one that would casually occur in a bar, the setting of the cartoon.
  • Abyssinian Crisis

    Abyssinian Crisis
    This event was the Italian invasion of Abyssinia. The League had voted on trade sanctions, but this was a weak retaliation because it didn't affect imports of oil. The lack-luster retaliation of the League served to delegitimize its authority by ignoring its rules without significant consequence.
  • Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed

    Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed
    The following treaty is an agreement between Italy, Germany, and Japan. Those who signed the agreement would assist militarily if another member was attacked. This event created the formal alliance of the axis powers. The intimidating aspect of the coalition kept the League from taking action against territorial expansion through fear. The photo are the flags of the countries that signed the treaty.
  • Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War

    Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War
    During the Spanish Civil war, Italy and Nazi Germany assisted the Nationalists. Due to the high support, the Nationalists won the civil war and governed mostly fascist policies. Despite the Fascist assistance, Spain would not join World War Two in the future. This is because the country after a destructive civil war had very little industrial-military power. The image is propaganda regarding the assistance of the Spanish Nationalists.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    This was an agreement between Britain, France, and Germany that the Germans would only annex the German portions of Czechoslovakia. Germany signed the agreement, but he annexed the entirety of Czechoslovakia despite the conference. This event showed Hitler and Axis Powers that the League was weak and would give in to Nazi ambitions. The photo is an image of Chamberlin showing the signed agreement, believing the problem of German ambition was solved.
  • Italy invades Albania

    Italy invades Albania
    Italy invaded Albania. This was a military victory for the Italians who had much better equipment. This event reaffirmed the idea that Mussolini wanted Italy to recapture the glory of the Roman Empire by annexing nations on the Mediterranean. The photo is of Italian forces occupying an Albanian city.
  • Italy enters WW II on side of Germany

    Italy enters WW II on side of Germany
    Italy joins Germany and Japan in World War Two. This event cements the alliance between Italy and the other axis powers. The photo is a map of the European borders at the start of World War Two. Note the original signers of the axis alliance are not the only countries fighting the allied powers.
  • Mussolini brought down by coup during WW II

    Mussolini brought down by coup during WW II
    Through military defeat, the control of the Fascist government diminished and eventually, a coup overthrows the Italian government. The photo is of a newspaper announcing the Italian surrender during World War Two.
  • Mussolini killed

    Mussolini killed
    Mussolini is killed by Anti-Fascist Italians. This event acts to secure the allies' victory of World War Two, as the new Italian government declares war against Germany.