Hitler planned to destroy the major industrial center, Stalingrad. The Germans were confident this would be an easy victory. The Luftwaffe set for a nightly raid, & nearly all buildings were on fire. Stalin demanded that the soldiers protect the city, & when it was winter, the Soviets surrounded the Germans in Stalingrad. Germans had no supplies and were freezing, they surrendered Jan, 1943. 1,100,000 Soviets died but this was a sig. turning point for the Society, for they moves west to Germany.