Hitler and mussolini

Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period

  • Russian Civil War

    Russian Civil War
    The Russian Civil war is between 1917 to 1923. It is a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire sparked by the overthrowing of the monarchy and the failure of the provisional government. It resulted in the formation of the Soviet Union. Several Western powers intervened on the side of the Whites, but in the end, the Bolsheviks won.
  • Russo-Polish War

    Russo-Polish War
    The war was between 1918-1921. The purpose of the war is the spread of communism and both country Russian, and Poland thought that they have won the war, and the American military historian said that the Soviet failure to destroy the Polish army ended soviet ambitions for international revolution.
  • Germany begins rearmament: 1918–1939

    Germany begins rearmament: 1918–1939
    Germany's post-1918 rearmament began in the Weimar Republic, the Chancellor of Germany Hermann Müller, passed cabinet laws that allowed secret and illegal rearmament efforts.
    -The training and equipping of police forces, but also well prepared to rapidly augment the military as military reserve forces
    -A component of German re-armament was covertly holding military training exercises in the Soviet Union to hide their extent from other countries.
  • Germany begins rearmament

    Germany begins rearmament
    Weimar era:1918–1933
    Germany's post-1918 rearmament began at the time of the Weimar Republic, when the Chancellor of Germany Hermann Müller. Nazi government era: 1933-1945
    After the Nazi takeover of power in January 1933, the Nazis pursued a greatly enlarged and more aggressive version of rearmament. =
  • The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was also known as the Treaty of Brest in Russia it was signed on March 3, 1918, in the city of Brest-Litovsk, located in modern-day Belarus near the Polish border, Bolshevik government of Russia signed a treaty with the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria) ending its participation in World War I (1914-18), Russia ceded to Germany hegemony over Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.
  • World War I Ends

    World War I Ends
    World War I armistice signed in a train car in Compiegne between Germany and the allies ending the First World War.
  • Fiume invasion

    Fiume invasion
    The Italian nationalist poet Gabriele D’Annunzio, who had mustered a body of men near Trieste, occupied Fiume and proclaimed himself the “commandant” of the “Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro.” 
  • The Treaty of Versailles

    The Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles, signed at the Palace of Versailles in Paris at the end of World War I, codified peace terms between the victorious Allies and Germany. The Treaty of Versailles held Germany responsible for starting the war and imposed harsh penalties in terms of loss of territory, massive reparations payments, and demilitarization.
  • League of Nations formed

    League of Nations formed
    The League of Nations was formed on 10 January 1920, it was a cross-government organization formed after Paris Peace Conference, and its main aim was to keep the peace. But it collapsed in 1946.
  • The Little Entente is formed

    The Little Entente is formed
    The Little Entente was an alliance formed in 1920 and 1921 by Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia. With the purpose of common defense against Hungarian revanchism and toward the protection of the members’ territorial integrity and political independence. During the 1920s the three nations sought economic and political cooperation and negotiated alliances with France.
    It was successful in its aims until the rise of Hitler in Germany, which caused its collapse in 1938.
  • Washington Naval Treaties

    Washington Naval Treaties
    Washington Naval Treaties was a treaty signed during 1922 among the major Allies of World War I, which agreed to prevent an arms race by limiting naval construction. It was negotiated at the Washington Naval Conference, held in Washington, D.C., from November 1921 to February 1922, and it was signed by the governments of Great Britain, the United States, France, Italy, and Japan.
  • Chanak Crisis

    Chanak Crisis
    A war between UK and Turkey. Turkish troops marched against British and French positions in the Dardanelles neutral zone in order to occupy Greek. But the war quickly ended because Canada does not want to join the war. Consequentially, British and French forces were ultimately withdrawn from the neutral zone in the summer of 1923, following the ratification of the Treaty of Lausanne.
  • Treaty of Rapallo

    Treaty of Rapallo
    Treaty of Rapallo was an agreement signed between Germany and the Soviet Union under which both renounced all territorial and financial claims against each other and opened friendly diplomatic relations. It was a major victory for Russia especially and also Germany, and a major disappointment to France and the United Kingdom. The secret military co-operation was already scheduled between Germany and Russia, which was a violation of the Versailles Treaty.
  • Mussolini invades Corfu

    Mussolini invades Corfu
    The Corfu incidence was from August 31 to September 27 in 1923. An Italian delegation was murdered in Greece. Mussolini ordered the island of Corfu to be shelled, even though the Corfu asked the help from the League of Nations, they still have to pay the indemnity for the territory they lost.
  • Zinoviev Letter

    Zinoviev Letter
    The Zinoviev letter was a fake document published and sensationalised by the British Daily Mail newspaper four days before the general election of October 1924. The letter aided the Conservative Party by hastening the collapse of the Liberal Party vote, which, in turn, produced a Conservative landslide.
  • Dawes plan

    Dawes plan
    Dawes Plan, arrangement for Germany’s payment of reparations after World War I. On the initiative of the British and U.S. governments, a committee of experts (with two members each from France, Belgium, Italy, Britain, and the United States), presided over by an American financier, Charles G. Dawes, produced a report on the question of German reparations for presumed liability for World War I.
  • Socialism in one country

    Socialism in one country
    Socialism in one country was a Soviet state policy to strengthen socialism within the country rather than socialism globally. Given the defeats of the 1917–1923 European communist revolutions, Joseph Stalin and Nikolai Bukharin encouraged this turn towards national communism in 1924, away from the classical Marxism position of global socialism. The theory was eventually adopted as Soviet state policy.
  • France invades the Rhineland

    France invades the Rhineland
    Treaty of Versailles provided for the occupation by French, British, American and Belgian forces of the German regions on the left bank of the Rhine and part of the right bank. The French inherited the largest zone of occupation. It grew even larger after the withdrawal of the American soldiers. Created in October 1919, the French army on the Rhine had 100,000 men in the Rhineland and up to 210,000 during the first occupation of the Ruhr.
  • Geneva Protocol rejected

    Geneva Protocol rejected
    Geneva Protocol on Chemical Warfare (1925).Widespread revulsion against the World War I use of poison gas led to the Geneva Protocol in 1925, restricting chemical warfare. The agreement, ratified by most powers, was rejected by Japan and by the U.S. Senate.
  • Locarno Pact

    Locarno Pact
    The pact was signed by Germany, France, Belgium, Great Britain, and Italy to guarantee peace in western Europe. The treaty guaranteed Germany’s western frontier, and the bordering states: France, Germany, and Belgium, promised to treat Germany’s western boundary as inviolable. Britain and Italy also agreed to help repel the armed aggression across the border.
  • Treaty of Berlin

    Treaty of Berlin
    Treaty of Berlin was also called German-Soviet Neutrality and Nonaggression Pact, this treaty was signed 24 April 1926 which Germany and the Soviet Union pledged neutrality in the event of an attack on the other by a third party for five years. The treaty reaffirmed the German-Soviet Treaty of Rapallo
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact

    Kellogg-Briand Pact
    This is a pact signed between USA and France. Americans don’t want to be drawn into an international conflict, French Minister proposed this treaty that would outlaw war, and America thinks this treaty will achieve national goals. This treaty was a failure because the treaty was put to the test and failed in 1931 when Japan invaded Manchuria, China. It became clear that the Kellogg- Briand Pact proved ineffective in preventing war without enforcement.
  • Wall Streeet Crash

    Wall Streeet Crash
    t was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its aftereffects.[1] The Great Crash is mostly associated with October 24, 1929, called Black Thursday, the day of the largest sell-off of shares in U.S. history,and October 29, 1929, called Black Tuesday, when investors traded some 16 million shares on the New York Stock Exchange in a single day.
  • Mussolini annexes Albania

    Mussolini annexes Albania
    Mussolini invaded Albania because Albania had lots of oil and minerals, which could help him achieve Italy's autarky. The invasion of Albania could also allow him to reach supremacy in the Mediterranean and step into the Balkans.
  • The Young Plan

    The Young Plan
    The Young Plan was an attempt by former wartime allies to support the government of Weimar Germany. In 1924, the Dawes Plan had been introduced to bring Weimar out of hyperinflation and to stabilise its economy. It appeared to have succeeded as 1924 to mid-1929 are viewed by historians as Weimar's 'golden years'.
  • Import Duties Act

    Import Duties Act
    The enactment of the Import Duties Act inaugurated protectionism in Britain, bringing to end a long period of commitment to free trade. The Act placed a 10 per cent tariff on manufactured imports, while foods, raw materials and empire manufactures were exempted. In 1932 the Import Duties Advisory Committee doubled the basic tariff to twenty per cent.
  • World Disarmament Conference

    World Disarmament Conference
    World Disarmament Conference(1933): Sixty countries sent delegates to the Disarmament Conference that convened in Geneva in February 1932 to consider reductions in armaments, with particular emphasis on offensive weapons.
  • The Lytton Report

    The Lytton Report
    The Lytton Report is the findings of the Lytton Commission, entrusted in 1931 by the League of Nations in an attempt to evaluate the Mukden Incident. It was hoped that the report would defuse the hostilities between Japan and China and thus help maintain peace and stability in the Far East.
    Its conclusions were announced in October 1932. The League of Nations General Assembly adopted the report, and Japan quit the League. The recommendations went into effect after Japan surrendered in 1945.
  • Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany

    Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany
    On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed as the chancellor of Germany by President Hindenburg. This marked as a turning point for Germany and for the whole world. Hindenburg thought this act would control Hitler and the Nazi party but it turned out to be a disaster.
  • Italy stops Anschluss

    Italy stops Anschluss
    In 1934, Italy had an agreement with Austria that it would protect Austria from outside aggression. The Italian dictator, Mussolini, honoured the agreement and moved Italian troops to the Austrian border to deter Hitler from invading. His decisive action gained him the respect of Britain and France. However, Mussolini's invasion of Abyssinia in 1935 and Hitler's invasion of the Rhineland significantly changed the diplomatic alignments in Europe.
  • German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact

    German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact
    The German-Polish non-aggression pact was a treaty that was created between the Second Polish republic and Nazi Germany. This international treaty was signed on January 26, 1934. It stipulated the agreement of both countries to put an end to their problems by creating bilateral negotiations.
  • USSR joins the League of Nations

    USSR joins the League of Nations
    USSR joins the League of Nations. General meeting of the League of Nations adopted a resolution on the admission of the USSR into the League and the inclusion of its representative to its Board as a permanent member. League of Nations invited the Soviet Union to join the League. The same day, the Soviet Government said it is ready to become a member of the League. However, on Dec. 14, 1939 the USSR was expelled from League of Nations for acts "against the Finnish state."
  • Stresa Front

    Stresa Front
    This conference was signed by Britain, France, and Italy, due to the development of Germany’s air force this turned Italy into the enemy of Germany, also this is the start of appeasement.
  • Anglo-German Naval Agreement

    Anglo-German Naval Agreement
    Promoted bilateral concord(两国和谐) between UK and Germany, for Germany this agreement is protection aginst France and Soviet alliance. The agreement allowed Germany to have its own navy but limit its size to 35% of the royal navy which violate the treaty of Versailles (part of appeasement). The agreement was denounced by Adolf Hitler on 28 April 1939.
  • Italy invades Abyssinia

    Italy invades Abyssinia
    The Second Italian-Ethiopian War was a military operation launched by Italy to invade Abyssinia on October 3, 1935. Under the pretext of a border conflict between Italian Somaliland and Abyssinia in December 1934, the Kingdom of Italy rejected all Abyssinia’s requests for reconciliation and invaded Abyssinia in a large-scale attack. The war lasted for about seven months, ending in Abyssinia’s military occupation and integration into Italian East Africa.
  • Anti-Comintern Pact

    Anti-Comintern Pact
    Japan, Italy and Germany signed the pact to go against the Soviet Union(The treaties were sought by Adolf Hitler).
  • Reoccupation of the Rhineland

    Reoccupation of the Rhineland
    Hitler reoccupied Rhineland. This broke the rules and orders that were made by the Treaty of Versailles. The nation involved in the reoccupation of the Rhineland involved country is Germany, and a lot of countries in the European state don’t really care about the reoccupation.
  • The Spanish Civil War begins

    The Spanish Civil War begins
    Begin on July 18 1936, the Spanish Civil War begins as a revolt by right-wing Spanish military officers in Spanish Morocco and spreads to mainland Spain.The Nationalist forces received munitions, soldiers, and air support from Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, while the Republican side received support from the Soviet Union and Mexico.
  • Rome-Berlin Axis

    Rome-Berlin Axis
    The event is between Italy and Germany which are two fascist countries. This extended the already established Rome-Berlin Axis to Tokyo and signalized the alliance of three totalitarian powers.
  • Italy leaves the League of Nations

    Italy leaves the League of Nations
    As Germany had left the League of Nations in 1933, so Mussolini left the League in 1937 after the League had imposed economic sanctions on Italy for the invasion of Abyssinia. In 1938, Germany occupied Austria in the Anschluss (forbidden by Versailles).
  • May Crisis

    May Crisis
    The May Crisis, an international tension, was caused by the reports of German troop movements against Czechoslovakia, which signaled the outbreak of war in Europe.
  • Anschluss with Austria

    Anschluss with Austria
    Achieved through annexation by Adolf Hitler in 1938. 1934 Austria Nazi tried a coup but failed. Germany invade on April 9 where a controlled plebiscite on April 10 gave a 99.7 per cent approval.
  • The Munich Agreement

    The Munich Agreement
    The Munich Agreement was an agreement concluded in Munich on 30 September 1938, by Germany, the United Kingdom, France, and Italy. It provided "cession to Germany of the Sudeten German territory" of Czechoslovakia.
    A direct consequence of the Munich Conference was the occupation of the Sudetenland by Germany, which led to Hitler invading the rest of Czechoslovakia. This was possible by appeasing Hitler by giving him Sudetenland which was next to Czechoslovakia.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    Munich conference was to permit the German annexation of the Sudetenland in western Czechoslovakia with the participants of Germany, Great Britain, France, and Italy.
  • Non-Intervention Agreement

    Non-Intervention Agreement
    The agreement was arranged by France and Britain to make sure there would be no intervention during the Spanish civil war, primarily, there are only a few countries involved, however, there are 27 countries involved ultimately.
  • Hitler invades the rest of Czechoslovakia

    Hitler invades the rest of Czechoslovakia
    On March 15, 1939, the German army entered Czechoslovakia. They took over Bohemia and founded a protectorate in Slovakia. After March 1939, the Czech arms industry, including the Skoda plant, was taken over by Germany. German army takes over a large number of Czech tanks.
  • Pact of Steel

    Pact of Steel
    The pact was signed between Italy and Germany to represent the good relationship between the two countries.
  • Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

    Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
    The pact was signed a few days before the breakout of WWII. The main goal of signing the pact was to carve up Poland, half for the Soviet Union, and half for Germany. Also, both of them, want to buy time by signing the pact. The Soviet Union, they want to prevent further military action from Germany. For Germany, they want to have more time for preparation. Finally, Poland had been invaded and separated.
  • Hitler invades France

    Hitler invades France
    On 3 September 1939, France declared war on Germany following the German invasion of Poland. In early September 1939, France began the limited Saar Offensive and by mid-October had withdrawn to their start lines. France and the Low Countries were conquered, ending land operations on the Western Front until the Normandy landings on 6 June 1944.
  • The Winter War

    The Winter War
    The Winter War is also called Russo-Finnish War, from Nov 30 1939 to Mar 12, 1940, war waged by the Soviet Union against Finland at the beginning of World War II, following the conclusion of the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact (August 23, 1939). In March 1940 with the signing of the Moscow Peace Treaty in which Finland ceded 9% of its territory to the Soviet Union.
  • Mussolini invades France

    Mussolini invades France
    Italy invaded France in June 1940, it was the first time that Italy was officially involved in World War II. More than 300000 soldiers were sent by Italy to France, their major aim is to occupy the Alps and the Nice region. Finally, France surrendered and gave a small part of the territories to Italy.
  • Hitler invades Denmark

    Hitler invades Denmark
    German invasion of Denmark, also known as the Six Hour War due to the short length. The attack was a prelude to the invasion of Norway. In Denmark, King Christian X, convinced his army could not fight off a German invasion, surrendered almost immediately after small amount of German troop entered Copenhagen. This would alows Hitler to move further into Norway.
  • Hitler invades Norway

    Hitler invades Norway
    On April 9, 1940, German warships enter major Norwegian ports, from Narvik to Oslo, deploying thousands of German troops and occupying Norway. Norwegian forces refused to accept German rule in the guise of a puppet state. But an accelerating German offensive in France led Britain to transfer thousand of soldiers from Norway to France, resulting ultimately in a German victory. This invasion allows German navy to attack British ships and bring resources from Swedish back.
  • Hitler invades the Low Countries

    Hitler invades the Low Countries
    May 11 1940 Nazi troops attacked the Low Countries - Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg on May 10. The invasion wasn't entirely unexpected, as Germany has been at war with Britain and France since last September, and in April invaded Denmark and Norway. The scourge of fascism wouldn’t be halted by distance and the seemingly safe barriers of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
  • Tripartite Pact

    Tripartite Pact
    Tripartite Pact was an agreement concluded by Germany, Italy, and Japan. It created a defense alliance between the countries and was largely intended to deter the United States from entering the conflict. Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Croatia were later signatories to the pact.
  • Mussolini (and Hitler) invades Greece

    Mussolini (and Hitler) invades Greece
    Mussolini invaded Greece from Albania, a region under Italian control, because of the rejection of ceding the Greek territory by Greek Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas. However, the Greek army pushed the Italian army back into Albania within a month.
  • Japanese-Soviet Neutrality Pact

    Japanese-Soviet Neutrality Pact
    This pact was signed between the Soviet Union and Japan in 1941, this pact is to guarantee Japan and the Soviets will stay neutral in the war. During the Yalta conference, Stalin agreed to declare war against Japan.
  • Hitler invades the USSR

    Hitler invades the USSR
    Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, code-named "Operation Barbarossa," to deliberately sabotage the non-aggression pact signed two years earlier by the two countries. Germany and its allies assembled more than 3,500,000 soldiers for the attack.