music tech

  • mississippi valley printing telegraph

    mississippi valley printing telegraph
    1851 - The New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company is founded
    in Rochester, New York, which will become Western Union -- the first electronic
    message service (also offering the service of delivered Telegrams.)
  • western union

    western union
    1861 - Western Union completes the first transcontinental telegraph line -- providing fast,
    coast-to-coast communications during the U.S. Civil War.
  • christopher latham

    christopher latham
    1866 - Christopher Latham Sholes of Danville, PA and his colleagues, Carlos Glidden and
    Samuel Soulé developed the first practical typewriter (and the QWERTY keyword.)
  • remington arms

    remington arms
    1873 - The Remington Arms company signs a deal to market Sholes' Typewriter under their
    name; later they merge with the Rand company to form Remington-Rand.
  • copyright agreement

    copyright agreement
    1891 - The International copyright agreement is adopted between major countries
  • million seller

    million seller
    1892 - The first "million-seller" song hit (sold via sheet music) was "After The Ball" by Charles K. Harris, who was both its composer and publisher.
  • Lumiere brothers

    Lumiere brothers
    1895 - The Lumiere Brothers use (piano) music with a motion picture program (of
    short subjects) for the first time at a Dec. 28th -screening at the Grand Café in Paris
  • silent motion picture

    silent motion picture
    1896 - An orchestra is used with (silent) motion pictures for the first time in April in London
  • gramophone disks

    gramophone disks
    1897 - Shellac gramophone disks developed by Emile Berliner - speeds will vary on discs
    issued by companies in different countries (80 rpm was used on some British recordings)
    The film is co-produced by Rouben Mamoulian with Kenneth MacGowan's "Pioneer
    Pictures Corporation", and is distributed by RKO Radio Pictures.
  • Wireless telegraphy

    Wireless telegraphy
    1897 - Guglielmo Marconi is granted his first British patent for wireless telegraphy.
  • mass duplication

    mass duplication
    1900 - Eldredge Johnson perfects first system of mass duplication of pre-recorded flat disks.
  • electric theater

    electric theater
    1902 - April 16 - "The Electric Theater" in Los Angeles is opened by Thomas L. Tally: the
  • victrola model record player

    victrola model record player
    1906 - RCA Victor's "Victrola" model record player is introduced. It has a variable turntable
    speed control to accomodate the wide range of phonograph records produced at that
    time; Victor's speeds ranged from 71 - 76 rpm. Columbia was producing discs as 80rpm.
    Some British disks even rotated between 66rpm - 90rpm; Although U.S. phonograph
    manufacturers agreed in 1928 to standardize on the rate of 78.26 rpm, it still took
    decades for mo
  • double sided phonograph

    double sided phonograph
    1908 - The first double-sided phonograph records are introduced by Columbia. Soon its
    competitors follow suit; Prior to this time, all records had sound only on one side;
    the back side was a blank (un-grooved) side.
  • doc herrold radio casting

    doc herrold radio casting
    1912 - Charles "Doc" Herrold begins the first regular public radio broadcasting of voice and
    music from his "wireless telegraph college" in San Jose, California; He calls it "The
    Herrold Station" and transmits to audiences from San Jose to San Francisco.
  • disk recordings

    disk recordings
    1912 - Disk recordings overtake cylinders in the popular market. Columbia drops cylinders
  • feature length film

    feature length film
    1913 - Cecil B. DeMille and Jesse Lasky produce the first "feature-length" film called
    "The Squaw Man"
  • consumer charge card

    consumer charge card
    1914 - Western Union introduces the first consumer charge card.
  • loudspeaker

    1916 - AT&T engineer C. G. Hensley got the idea for the loudspeaker when he thought about
    what would happen if he made a telephone receiver really big.
  • record changer automatic

    record changer automatic
    1921 - The first automatic "record changer" turntable is patented for a stack of 78's.
  • rear projection

    rear projection
    1924 - Dutch-born Iwan Surrerier (a Pasadena, CA resident) re-designs his rear-projection
    device for home viewing movies (invented in 1917 -- called a "Moviola") into a
    machine to make film editing easier, and sold his first one to Douglas Fairbanks.
  • magnetic tape recorder

    magnetic tape recorder
    1935 - AEG/Telefunken exhibits the first magnetic tape recorder in Germany.
  • top selling records chart

    top selling records chart
    1936 - Billboard magazine publishes its first chart of top-selling records.
  • mutual a coasto to coast reach

    mutual a coasto to coast reach
    1936 - The West Coast "Don Lee" chain of radio stations joins the Mutual Network on
    December 29 giving Mutual a coast-to-coast reach
  • NBC radio network

    NBC radio network
    1937 - Christmas Night on the NBC Radio Network - The NBC Symphony Orchestra premiere
    broadcast begins a 17-year run under the direction of Arturo Toscanini.
  • nbc symphoy orchestra premiere

    nbc symphoy orchestra premiere
    1937 - Christmas Night on the NBC Radio Network - The NBC Symphony Orchestra premiere
    broadcast begins a 17-year run under the direction of Arturo Toscanini.
  • CBS radio network

    CBS radio network
    1938 - The CBS radio network debuts the "CBS World News Round-Up" on March 13th
    anchored by broadcast journalist Robert Trout.
  • pepsi cola hits the spot

    pepsi cola hits the spot
    1939 - National radio hit advertising jingle "Pepsi-Cola Hits The Spot" is written by
    Eric Siday and Ginger Johnson, adapted from the tune of an 18th-century
    English hunting song titled "John Peel". Johnson-Siday would write early
    advertising jingles, and then Siday would form the first electronic jingle
    company "Identitones" using early analog synthesizers in the 1960s.
  • chicago worlds fair

    chicago worlds fair
    1939 - Electronic television demonstrated at the Chicago Worlds Fair by RCA / NBC; the
    number of horizontal scan lines of early electronic TV systems varied from 500 to
    750 with DuMont systems having the highest resolution around 750.
  • FM radio

    FM radio
    1940 - Regular FM Radio broadcasting begins in New York City.

    1941 - The National Television Standards Committee adopts the "NTSC standard" of
    525 interlaced horizontal scan lines for all U.S. commercial television broadcasts
    and just under 30 frames per second consisting of two interlaced fields.
  • ASCPA feuds with radio networks

    ASCPA feuds with radio networks
    1941 - ASCAP feuds with radio networks, which spawns the birth of a rival U.S. Performance
    Royalty collection/distribution organization -- Broadcast Music, Incorporated -- BMI

    1942 - James Petrillo's American Federation of Musicians (AF of M) Union begins a
    "recording ban" from Aug., 1942 - Nov., 1944 to force record companies to pay royalties,
    which starts the decline of the big-band era in favor of vocal groups and "crooner" vocalists
  • recording ban

    recording ban
    1942 - James Petrillo's American Federation of Musicians (AF of M) Union begins a
    "recording ban" from Aug., 1942 - Nov., 1944 to force record companies to pay royalties,
    which starts the decline of the big-band era in favor of vocal groups and "crooner" vocalists
  • Blue

    1945 - The American Broadcasting Network officially begins on June 14 -- when it takes over
    the NBC Radio "Blue" Network. Announcements for awhile identified it as the "Blue
    Network of the American Broadcasting Company" or the "American Blue Network."
  • german mag tape recorders

    german mag tape recorders
    1946 - Captured German magnetic tape recorders brought to the United States which are copied
    for commercial use by A. M. Polikoff who founds AMPEX (he added "EX" for excellence.)
  • first transistor

    first transistor
    1947 - Dec 16 - Bell Laboratories assembles the world's first transistor (a "point contact" type
    so-called because two pointed metal contacts pressed the surface of a semiconductor.)
  • first comm televison station

    first comm televison station
    1947 - Jan 22 - The FCC approves the first commercial television station West of the Mississipi at a
    subsidiary of Paramount Pictures - call letters are changed to KTLA - over channel 5
    (formerly it was experimental TV station W6XYZ on channel 4, and later on channel 5.)
  • FCC approves regularly scheduled commercial television broadcasting

    FCC approves regularly scheduled commercial television broadcasting
    1947 - The FCC approves regularly-scheduled commercial television broadcasting, following
    the wartime "interruption", on seven East Coast television stations.
  • first cable tv

    first cable tv
    1948 - The first cable TV systems appear (called Community Antenna TeleVision systems,
    or CATV) for carrying television signals by wire into areas that are geographically remote.
  • AES

    1948 - The Audio Engineering Society (The AES) is formed.
  • microgroove disk

    microgroove disk
    1948 - The commercial 33 1/3 LP (Long Playing) microgroove (1-mil) disc is introduced by Dr.
    Peter Goldmark of Columbia Records; the first LP disk is released; it is 10" Columbia
    record #4001 performed by classical violinist Yehudi Menuhin.
  • 45 rpm phonograph records

    45 rpm phonograph records
    1949 - RCA Victor responds to the LP by developing large-hole 45 rpm phonograph records;
    Although the effort failed to kill LPs, RCA's 45s eventually had the unintended
    consequence of replacing 78s as the preferred media format for singles.
  • CBS eye

    CBS eye
    1951 - The "CBS Eye" network logo debuts on September 10, 1951, designed by network art
    director William Golden. An animated version debuted on the air on October 17th.
  • CBS televison broadcast first color tv program

    CBS televison broadcast first color tv program
    1951 - CBS television broadcast the first color TV program to five cities on June 25th; the CBS
    color system was not compatible with black & white signals as was the RCA system
    deve1951 - The first ID jingle company to "sing-over" pre-recorded backgrounds - PAMS, Inc. is
    formed in Dallas, Texas by former radio studio musician Bill Meeks on August 20, 1951.
  • I love lucy

    I love lucy
    1951 - The first episode of "I Love Lucy" aired on Monday, October 15th on the CBS
    Television Network, filmed with three cameras simultaneously in front of a
    "live" audience on the General Service Studio soundstage.
  • RIAA

    1952 - The Recording Industry Association of America (the RIAA) is formed in order
    to facilitate technical standardization of phonograph recording & reproduction;
    It invited engineers from U.S. record companies to discuss proposed standards
    including a pre-emphasis equalization curve that would optimize the performance
    of playback systems in attenuating unwanted surface noise and rumble, etc.
  • telephone companies coaxial cables

    telephone companies coaxial cables
    1952 - Coast-to-coast network TV is a reality via telephone company coaxial cables.

    1953 - RCA proposes to the RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America) that it
    adopt RCA's "New Orthophonic" recording characteristic as its standard to define
    equalization crossover points and rolloff characteristics for records. But the
    RIAA doesn't officially endorse this standard for 3 more years (1956), and it
    would take four more years (until 1957) for the last U.S. manufacturer to change
    their "equalization" curves to the RI
  • 1954 color televison sets rolled out of factory

    1954 color televison sets rolled out of factory
    1954 - On March 25, the first color television sets rolled out of the RCA Victor factory
    in Bloomington, Indiana; (The model CT-100 had a 12-inch screen, and a suggested
    retail price of $1000. A total of 5,000 model CT-100 sets were made.)
  • weekend radio network fomat called monitor

    1955 - NBC debuts a weekend radio network format called MONITOR on Sunday, June 12th,
    a creation of Pat Weaver, who also created NBC's Today and Tonight Shows.
  • long playing records

    long playing records
    1955 - Larger 12" LP's overtake 10" LP's as the preferred size for long-playing records.
  • first videotape sysetm

    first videotape sysetm
    1956 - Ampex Co. of Redwood City, CA demonstrates the first videotape system in February
  • stero disks

    stero disks
    1957 - Compatible Stereo disks and record players are offered for sale (33 1/3 and 45rpm.)
  • first solid plate tv set

    first solid plate tv set
    1960 - Sony introduces the first "solid-state" TV set, using transistors instead of vacuum tubes.
  • FM radio broadcasting

    FM radio broadcasting
    1961 - FM Stereo radio broadcasting begins and FM slowly starts to gain respect.
  • analog tape recording starts

    analog tape recording starts
    1962 - Multitrack analog tape recording starts being used in recording studios
  • interactive computer graphics

    interactive computer graphics
    1963 - Ivan Sutherland does his M.I.T. Doctoral Thesis on Interactive Computer Graphics
    creating a "Sketchpad" program using an interactive light pen instead of a mouse;
    which leads to the first practical uses of interactive graphics on computers.
  • stero tape cassettes

    stero tape cassettes
    1963 - Compact stereo tape cassettes and players are developed by Phillips.
  • 8-track stereo

    8-track stereo
    1964 - The 8-track stereo tape cartridge is developed for automobile use by Lear
  • dolby-a

    1966 - The "Dolby-A" professional noise reduction system is used in some recording studios
  • dolby-B

    1968 - The "Dolby-B" noise reduction system is introduced for consumer reel-to-reel and
    cassette tape recorders.
  • FCC requires cable tc system

    FCC requires cable tc system
    1969 - The FCC requires cable TV systems with more than 3500 subscribers to include
    locally-originated programming
  • fcc calbe tv system

    fcc calbe tv system
    1969 - The FCC requires cable TV systems with more than 3500 subscribers to include
    locally-originated programming
  • MONITOR cancelled

    MONITOR cancelled
    1975 - NBC's weekend radio format MONITOR is cancelled after nearly 20 years --
    It's final broadcast airs on Sunday, January 26th.
  • gyroscopic steadicam

    gyroscopic steadicam
    1976 - Garrett Brown invents the gyroscopic Steadicam, a motion picture camera stabilizer
    mount, worn by the cameraman himself, first used in the movie "Rocky."
  • rapper's delight

    rapper's delight
    1979 - The Sugarhill Gang's "Rapper's Delight", is the first hip-hop record to reach Top 40 radio
  • mtv music tv cable net

    mtv music tv cable net
    1981 - The MTV Music TV Cable Network debuts on the air at Midnight, August 1st.
  • dig compact disk

    dig compact disk
    1982 - The digital Compact Disc (CD) is introduced by a Japanese conglomerate.
  • CD titles

    CD titles
    1983 - The first CD titles are released in the US in June (12 CBS, 15 Telarc, 30 Denon.)
  • apple macintosh personal com

    apple macintosh personal com
    1984 - The (128K) Apple Macintosh personal computer debuts with a Graphical User Interface
    advertised as "the computer for the rest of us", expected sales of 50,000 the first month
    at $2495, the industry (and Apple) is surprised when 75,000 orders pour in...perhaps
    due in part to a novel TV ad aired during the Football Superbowl game.
  • CD takes huge bite out of LP

    CD takes huge bite out of LP
    1985 - Adoption of the CD starts taking a huge bite out of LP sales, causing them to drop 25%
  • Recording industry association

    Recording industry association
    1986 - The Recording Industry Association of America (the RIAA) announces on June 19 that
    CDs have overtaken LP sales in the U.S.
  • personal computers outsell tvs

    personal computers outsell tvs
    1994 - Personal computers outsell TV sets for the first time in the United States.
  • dig storage increases

    dig storage increases
    1996 - The DVD (Digital Versatile Disc) increases capacity of digital storage of audio and video
    on a CD (Compact Disc) medium; can store on to 4.7 GigaBytes per side; double-sided
    disks are possible though rare...
  • The Mutual Broadcasting System

    The Mutual Broadcasting System
    1999 - The Mutual Broadcasting System is a victim of consolidation -- absorbed into Westwood
    One-CNN Radio on April 18, ending 65 years as an independent radio network.
  • internet bubble

    internet bubble
    2000 - March 10 -- the so-called "Internet Bubble" burst leading to a recession/shakeout
    of the inflated technology industry, as reality started to replace "irrational exuberance
  • dvd recorders

    dvd recorders
    2000 - Consumer DVD recorders were introduced at the Comdex Consumer Electronics
    show in Las Vegas priced at $1000, but by the 2001 show came down to around $500;
    these video recorders can hold up to 4.7 gigabytes of video and multimedia content
  • napster

    2000 - Internet music-swapping site "Napster" is created, and alarms the recording industry
    which mounts a massive campaign to shut it down despite First Amendment concerns.
  • electronic books

    electronic books
    2000 - Digital electronic books (E-Books) become a small part of the publishing industry, and
    several competing companies attempt to introduce the standards for them.
  • recording sales

    recording sales
    2000 - The first year recording sales actually declined -- record industry blames online music
    swapping as the cause and tried to advance digital copy protection schemes
  • dvd disk

    dvd disk
    2001 - DVD video disk players outsell VHS video cassette recorder/players for the first time.
  • intel announces

    intel announces
    2001 - Intel announces a breakthrough in the speed of computer processing chips that will make
    computers several THOUSAND times faster; first systems expected to be sold in 2007
  • reminiscent of vhs/betamax

    reminiscent of vhs/betamax
    2001 - Reminiscent of VHS/Betamax, an alternate standard for consumer DVD writable disks
    is introduced to thwart piracy called DVD+RW (as opposed to original DVD-RW);
    Microsoft is among the chief proponents of DVD+RW; Apple remains with DVD-RW
  • napster filter out

    napster filter out
    2001 - Napster is forced to "filter out" content due to RIAA lawsuit; hints at fees to come
    other free peer-to-peer software including Gnutella are developed to take Napster's place
  • i-tunes

    2003 - Apple Computer introduces a downloadable music service via its iTunes music application,
    which proved that people would pay 99-cents-per-tune to download music legally in the
    wake of peer-to-peer free (but illegal) file swapping
  • vhs stop selling

    vhs stop selling
    2005 - Retailers Wal-Mart, Target, Best Buy and Circuit City announce they will stop selling
    VHS Video Cassette tapes since DVD's are now the medium of choice for most consumers
  • music store

    music store
    2006 - February 22 - Apple Computer's online music store integrated into its iTunes software
    and iPod hardware, sold it's one-billionth song on this date, proving that digital music
    can be accepted by the public when distributed across a network in a virtual form, as
    opposed to inscribed only in discrete tangible media.