MEDIEVALInstruments used during this time included the flute, the recorder, and plucked string instruments, like the lute. Early versions of the organ and fiddle also existed.Perhaps the most known type of music to come out of the Medieval period was the Gregorian Chant. Gregorian Chants were monophonic, and most commonly sung by monks. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kK5AohCMX0U)
RENAISSANCEThe Renaissance brought significantly increased amounts of harmony and polyphony into music, as most composers were focused on choral music. Religious music continued to flourish throughout the entire Renaissance period, including new forms such as masses, anthems, psalms, and motets. Some composers of sacred music began to adopt secular forms towards the end of the period.
BAROQUEThe Baroque period is commonly known for complex pieces and intricate harmonies. Still, this period laid the groundwork for the next 300 years of music. The idea of the modern orchestra was born, along with opera, the concerto, sonata, and cantata. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a6ITYuEQnGo)
CLASSICALThough this period didn’t add any majorly new instrumentation, the harpsichord was officially replaced with the piano (or fortepiano). Orchestras increased in size, range, and power, and instrumentation overall had a lighter, more evident texture than Baroque music, making it less complicated.
ROMANTICBeethoven and Schubert bridged the gap between the Classical and Romantic periods of music. Just as one might assume from the word “romantic,” this period took Classical music and added overwhelming amounts of intensity and expression. As the period developed, composers gradually let go of heavily structured pieces and gravitated towards drama and emotion.
20TH CENTURY AND 21ST CENTURY20th Century and 21st Century can be broken down into even smaller periods. Impressionist: 1890 – 1925
Expressionist: 1908 – 1950
Modern: 1890 – 1975
Postmodern: 1930 – present
Contemporary: 1945 – present However, these sub-genres are normally lumped into one large category since there are so many diverse and opposing styles.