Mueggenborg Unit 600CE to Present

By saenzd
  • Period: 224 to Apr 10, 651

    Sasanid Empire

    Was ruled by the Sasanian Dynasty, and succeeded the Parthian Empire, and was recognized by the Roman and then later Byzantine Empire as one of the main European and Western Asia powers. The empire at it's greatest extent emcompassed modern day Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, the Caucasus, southwestern central Asia, part of turkey,costal parts of the Arabian Peninsula, the persian Gulf area, southwestern Pakistan, and bit of India. Founded by Ardashir I,fell under the invasion of Arab Caliphate.
  • Period: 250 to

    Maya Civilization

    Mayan Civilization never really collapsed, and their decedents still live till today. The period above is their classical period in which they reached their highest state of development and then suddenly collapsed. The mayans made many advance in writing, epigraphy, and the calender along with mathematics and astronomy. The mayan civiliztion is located mainly on the Yucatan peninsula.
  • Period: 330 to May 29, 1453

    Byzantine Empire

    After the Roman empire split, the Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire. Ruled traditionaly by Emperor and had it's capital in Constantinople. The religon was Christianity after 380, and language was Medival Greek and Latin. After much devestation from invading forces, and the crusades, and a breif period of rise, Constantinople fell in the Byzantine-Ottoman Wars after a siege on the city in 1453.
  • Apr 10, 610

    Foundation of Islam

    In 610 CE, at age 40, Muhammad a trader, started to recieve revelations from God. These revelations then turned into the Qur'an, the holy book of Islam. Muhammad himself taking over the entire Arabian Peninsula, and bloodlessly took over Mecca by his death in 632.
  • Apr 10, 661

    Slpit between the Sunni and Shi'ite

    By the end of the First Fitna or the First Islamic Civil War (656-661), Islam split into 2. The Shi'a or "followers of Ali" believe that Ali was the rightful successor of Muhammad and the first 3 caliphs. The Sunni are the largest denomination of Islam, and accept only the first four Caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad.
  • Period: Apr 10, 661 to Apr 10, 750

    Umayyad Caliphate

    Second of the 4 Arab caliphates made after Muhammad's death, with it's capital at Damascus, it was the 5th largest contiguous empire ever to exist, and the largest of its time.At the end of the dynasty the Umayyad Caliphate was overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • Apr 10, 711

    Muslims conquer Spain

    The Ummayad Caliphate disembarked in early 711 with a army that was made mostly of Berber Northwest Africans and were commanded by Tariq ibn Ziyad. after a decade most of the Iberian Peninsula was under muslim control, but was brought to a halt after a defeat at the Battle of Tours. Muslim rule ended in what is now modern day france in 975.
  • Period: Apr 10, 750 to Apr 10, 1258

    Abbasid Caliphate

    Third of the Islamic caliphates, built their capital located in Baghdad and overthrew the Umayyad caliph. They prospered for around 2 centuries and then went into a slow decline intill its rule ended in 1258 when the Mongols sacked their capital. Power was restored to the Caliphate in Egypt in 1261 but most authority rested in religous matters. In 1519 all power was formally overturned to the Ottomans and capital to Constantinople.
  • Period: Apr 10, 1071 to Apr 10, 1325

    Seljuk Turks

    At its height stretched from Anatolia to Persia, official language was Persian laguage, and was the target of the first crusade. Regarded as great patrons to Persian culture, art, literature, and language.
  • Period: Mar 10, 1095 to Apr 10, 1293

    The Crusades

    The Crusades were religous holy wars or campains by much of the Roman Catholic Europe, especially the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire. Mostly fought to gain control fo the Holy land for the Christians from the Muslim and Jews and spanded a period of 200 years. There were 9 major crusades also the Albigen Crusades, the Children Crusade,the Northern Crusade and some other smaller crusades. With the 9th crusade marking the end of the crusades in the middle east.
  • Period: Apr 10, 1138 to Mar 4, 1193


    A Muslim who became th Ayyubid Sultan of Syria and Egypt, and at his greatest extent of his power he ruled over Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, Hejaz and Yemen. Saladin led his men against the crusaders, but at the same time won the respect of many of the crusaders themselfs. Recaptured palestine, and died of a fever in 1193. Known and hailed as an example of chivalry in Europe and the world.
  • Period: Apr 10, 1200 to Apr 10, 1572

    Inca Civilization

    Becoming the largest Empire in pre- Columbian America, the Inca civilization was founded by Manco Capac who founded the Kingdom of Cuzco. Under his leadership he absorbs neighboring communities, and by 1442 it beame the largest empire in pre- Columbian America. The empire was split by a civil war which pitted two brothers against each other over the throne. In 1533 the spanish conquistadores took advantage of this and by 1573 ended all indigenous sovereignty on the Inca.
  • Period: Apr 10, 1206 to Apr 10, 1324

    Mongol Invasions

    By the early 1300's the Mongol Empire covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe. Much was conquered by Genghis Khan intill his death in 1227 where the conquest countined by his successors and generals and split up the empire into vassal's, tribute states, and regions. there was a reaccurance of mongol conquest in the 1500's.
  • Period: Apr 10, 1206 to Apr 10, 1227

    Genghis Khan

    Came to power after uniting tribes of north east asia. Founded the Mongol empire and began the Mongol invasions that conquested most of Eurasia and united china. His military was largely successful and he also made advances in the writing system of the Mongol empire, and promoted religous tolerance in his Empire.
  • Period: Apr 10, 1206 to Apr 10, 1527

    Delhi Sultanate

    The Delhi Sultanate is actually five shortlived kingdoms in India. made of the Mamluk Dynasty, Khilji Dynasty, Tughlaq Dynasty, Sayyid dynasty, Lodi dynasty, and finally absorbed into the Mughal Empire in 1526.
  • Apr 10, 1215

    Magna Carta

    Originally issued in 1215, the charter first passd into law in 1225 and later revised and released as the Great Charter of the Liberties of England. The Charter originaly gave and made King John of England proclaim certain liberties to freeman of his country, such as punishment only by law of the land, aslo made th eking proclaim that his will was not arbitrary. Greatly inspired future douments such as constitutions.
  • Period: Apr 10, 1230 to

    Mali Empire

    The Mali Empire or also known as the Mandingo Empire, is known for the wealth of its rulers like Mansa Musa I. Its important to remember that Mali wasn't a single country, but a collection of kingdoms and states that made the empire. The empire collapsed when around 1610 Mahmund IV died and his three sons fought over the land effectively splitting it after the Mansa's defeat against Manden.
  • Period: Apr 10, 1250 to Apr 10, 1517


    Mamluks are soldiers of slave orgin. They became a powerful military class in Muslim societies. In the Mamluk Sultanate the Mamluks took the Sultanate of Egypt and Syria and in their reign they repelled the Mongol invasion and ended the conflict with a peace treaty between the two, and fought the crusaders.
  • Period: Apr 9, 1312 to Apr 9, 1337

    Mansa Musa

    Mansa Musa, or Musa I, was the 10th king/emperor of the Malian Empire. He is sometimes viewed as the wealthiest ruler of his day, Islamic, and is the only man in recorded history that directly controlled gold prices in the mediterranean. Death is highly debated but is established as 1337.
  • Period: Apr 10, 1325 to Apr 10, 1521

    Aztec Civilization

    The Aztec civilization started with the founding of th etown Tenochtitlan in 1325, but the empire formally started with the Aztec Triple Alliance, which combined 3 city states that composed the Aztec Empire. They existed intill they were defeated by the Spanish Conquistadores led under Hernan Cortes in 1521.
  • Period: Apr 10, 1337 to Apr 10, 1453

    The Hundred years War

    The Hundred years wars lasted 116 years but was actually a series of conflicts that historians named together the Hundred years war. The war is often divided into these phases, the Edwardian war (1337-1360), the Caroline War (1369-1389), the Lancastrian War (1415-1429), and the period of decline for the fortune of the Plantagenet fortunes after Joan of Arc (1412-1431) entered the other faction. The Battle of Castillon in 1453 marked the last battle of the 100 years war.
  • Period: Apr 9, 1340 to

    Songhai Kingdoms

    Located in western africa, it was one of the largest Islamic empires in history. At a point the empire ecompassed more landmass that all of western europe. The empire declined after the death of Emperor Askia Daoud, and fell into smaller Kingdoms after an invasion from Morocco.
  • Period: Jan 23, 1368 to

    Ming Empire

    Followed the fall of the Yaun Dynasty of Mongol rule, and restored the Great Wall and the Grand Canal and established the Forbidden City. The Ming constructed a massive army of one million troops in its army and navy, The dynasty ended when a rebellion captured Beijing led by Li Zicheng and established the Shun Dynasty, which was then overthrown by the Qing Dynasty.
  • Period: Apr 10, 1370 to Feb 17, 1405


    Founder on the Mughal Empire (Lasted intill 1857 in India), and sought to restore the mongol empire as a conqueror of Western, South and Central Asia. founded the Timurid Empire in central asia,In his last campain to invade the Ming Empire he dies of a fever never reaching the chinese border.
  • Period: Apr 10, 1401 to


    The Renaissance was a cultr\ural movement that began in Florence, Italy and from there spread throughout the rest of Europe. It was a period of reform in the arts and the itellectuals, with men such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo which created astounding works in science and art. This is aslo a period of great political reform.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1405 to Apr 8, 1433

    Voyages of Zheng He

    There were 7 voyages done in this period that visted and retrieved items and intelligence from Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and East Africa. All records were destroyed of Zheng He's last 2 voyages,and Zheng He died in 1933 in his last voyage.
  • Apr 11, 1420

    Henry the Navigator

    Around this time Henry's expeditions started out. Henry the Navigator was born March 4th, 1392 and died 13 November, 1460 and was prince of the Kingdom of Portugal and help support, fund and develop European exploration and futhered oceanic trade with other continents. He aslo helped develop the carvel, a ship which could sail faster and further than current ships of his time.
  • Apr 10, 1440

    Gutenberg Press

    The Guten press is often considered one of the most influential events in the 2nd millennium. It allowed for the spread of thought ideas and movements in a different and quicker fashion. It cheapen the cst of printing books, making it an item that helped increase literacy and helped usher in a period of modernity and mass communication and complete over turn of the stucture of society.
  • May 29, 1453

    Fall of Constantinople and Byzantine Empire

    After being the capital of the Byzantine Empire for almost more than a thousand years, Constantinople fell taking the Byzantine Empire with it after the 1453 seige. After its capture it became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Period: Apr 10, 1462 to Oct 27, 1505

    Ivan III

    Known as the Grand Prince of Moscow, Ivan the Great, gatherer of the Russian lands, he was the longest riegning Russian ruler in history. He personally tripled the territory of the country, and ended the dominance from the Mongols Golden Horde over them, he also laid the foundation of the Russian state.
  • Aug 3, 1492

    Christopher Columbus

    On this date Columbus set out from Spain on three ships, the Santa Maria, Pinta, and Nina; after a 5 week voyage at around 2 a.m on the morning of October 12 he spotted land. And landed on land and named it San Salvador, then explored the Bahamas. Colombus would head on 3 more voyages after this.
  • Oct 12, 1492

    Colmbian Exchange

    Started immediately after the first contact between the old and the new world, and was the exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations, germs, diseaes, ideas and innovations. This event is one of the most important events pertaining to agriculture, culture, and ecology, and affected almost every society on earth in some form or fashion.
  • Jul 8, 1497

    da Gama

    Vasco da Gama was one of the most successful explorers in the Age of Discovery, and commanded the ships that were the first to sail from Europe to India directly. Was governer of Portuguese india in 1524 under the title of Viceroy.
  • Period: Apr 25, 1501 to

    Safavid Empire

    One the greatest persian empires since the Muslim conquest of Persia, and one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. The Safavid dynasty of Iran also established Islam as the official religon of their empire, making this also a major event for the Muslim religon. After 1666, with the death of Abbas I, the decline of the empire continued in till it was destroyed in 1736.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Protestant Reformation

    The protestant reformation started in 1517 when Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences on a church door. The name of the event where the catholic church split is called the Magisterial reformation.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Protestant Reformation

    The protestant reformation started in 1517 when Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences on a church door. The name of the event where the catholic church split is called the Magisterial reformation.
  • Apr 11, 1519


    Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer. He captained the first circumnavigation expedition and served King Charles I of Spain for a route to the "Spice Islands". (Islands in Indonesia)
  • Aug 5, 1519

    Creation of Colonies in the New World

    After the discovery of the new world by Colombus in 1492, the spanish founded the first European settlement in the Pacific coast of central america and named it Panama city August 5, 1519. After this the flood gates of colonization from all of Europe began intill the 18th century where independence movements began and the ultimate destruction of colonies by the 19th century.
  • Nov 8, 1519


    At this date Cortez enters the heart of the Aztec Empire at Tenochtitlan and takes Moctezuma (emperor of the aztec empire) hostage. On 13 August 1521, the Aztec empire finally was destoyed because of the siege Cortez laid on it. And then finally founded Mexico city, and governed it from 1521 to 1524.
  • Sep 13, 1524


    Francisco Pizarro Gonzalez, Marquess was the founder of Lima which is today's capital of Peru, he was a conquistador the conquered the Inca empire.
  • Apr 30, 1526


    Zahir ud-din Muhammad Babur was a military adventurer who established his first kingdom in 1504, and then built an army where his campains conquered all nearby land in till 1526 Where Babur laid the basis of the Mughal Empire, and ruled till the 26th of December, 1530.
  • Period: Apr 30, 1526 to

    Mughal Empire

    Started by its first Emperor Babur, it conquered most of India by the late 17th and early 18th century, and at its greatest extent ruled most of the Indian subcontinent. After 1725 the Mughal empire declined rapidly and the last emperor's rule was restircted to only the city of Delhi, and impisoned/exiled by the british after the indian rebellion fo 1857.
  • Apr 18, 1543

    Scientific Revolution

    Laying the foundation of modern science, the scientific revolution was a period of new ideas in the sciences and the start of the rejection of doctrines that have been upheld since ancient greece.
  • Sep 25, 1578

    Matteo Ricci

    Born in 1552, instructed in a Roman Jesuit school, he started in a missionary expedition to india where he arried in 1578, and 4 years later was sent to China. It was there where he became one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China Mission in China which existed in the 17th-18th centuries.
  • Period: Apr 24, 1580 to

    Triangle trade

    Triangle trade was a trade model of the trade that took place from the late 16th century to the early 19th century. The circuit was most commonly slaves from africa were sent to the americas, from there sugar was sent to new England, and then Rum and other goods were sent back to africa for more slaves in the americas, and so on. Usually took a full calender year to complete a full three point circuit.
  • Period: to

    Tokugawa Shogunate

    Established by Tokugawa Leyasu in the 17th century, and it was the feudal regime of Japan. The Tokugawa Shogunate was abolished during the Meiji Restoration in 1868.
  • Galileo

    Galileo Galilei played a major role in the scientific revolution, improved the telescope and supporter Copernicanism. Often known as the "father of science", he was born in February 15th 1564 and died under house arrest on January 8th 1642. Was persecuted because of his belief and support of the heliocentric model, and became victim of the roman inquisition.
  • Period: to

    Thirty Years War

    The war took mostly in place in what is now germany, and involved at times most of the countries in Europe at that time. It was one of the most destructive wars in European history, but its orgins and what it meant to lead to was often clouded and complex. Started off mostly as a religous conflict between the Protestants and the catholics, but then gave way to other political disputes.
  • Period: to

    Qing Dynasty

    Preceded by the Ming Dynasty and then followed by the Republic of China, the Qing Dynasty (also known as the Manchu Dynasty) was the last dynasty of China. Starting in 1644 it expanded to all its surrounding territories and complete take over of China was not done till around 1683 by the Kangxi Emperor. After an Imperial Edict in 1912, the child emperor Puyi was abdicated ending the Qing dynasty.
  • Peter the Great

    Peter I the Great ruled the Russian Empire from May 7th, 1682 till February 8, 1725. He turned the empire into a major european power and greatly modernized and expanded Russia. He aslo ended many tradtional customs like arranged marriage, having beards,and replaced the old calender with the Julian calender. He died because his bladder had become infected with gangrene.
  • Period: to


    This era also known as the age of reason, developed simultaneously in France, Great Britain, German, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Portugal and the American Colonies, helped also spark and support the revolution in this period such as the American Revolution and other independnce movements. It basicly the questioning of all previous ideas and placed law and morals and science.
  • Period: to

    french and Indian War

    The French Indian War is the name for a war in North America between France and Great Britian between 1754 and 1763. Turned later in to the full seven years war. The results of the conflict was the ceding of French Louisiana west of the mississippi river to spain, and spain lost florida to Geat Britian. At this point Britain was now the most dominant power in the eastern half of colonial north america.
  • Catherine the Great

    Catherine revived the Russian Empire, modernized it, and made it one of the great powers of Europe.Came to power after the assaination of her husband Peter III in 1762, and reigned till her death on November 17th, 1796.
  • Industrial Revolution

    The industrial revolution began in the United Kingdom and then spread around the world from the 18th to 19th century. It profoundly changed the economy towards a more industrial sense and manufactoring. Great innovations, inventions and ideas came that changed the way agriculture, manufacturing, minning, transportation, and technology,
  • Watt's Steam Engine

    Developed in 1763 to 1775, was a great creation in the line of steam engines, It improved previous engines,and made the steam engine more fuel efficent,and replaced many natural power sources being used in this time period to power the industry.
  • Spinning Jenny

    Invented by James Hargreaves in Lancashire, England. The Spinning Jenny was a machine that reduced the amount of work needed to make yarn.
  • Water Frame

    The water frame was a device which combined the power of the spinning frame to make yarn and the power of the water wheel. Both devices are credited to Richard Arkwright, but he did not actually invent it, but he is the one that actually put it to work. The water frame was part of one of the first factories, and establishing some of the first modern employment practices in it.
  • Period: to

    American Revoltion

    The american revolution was a war of independce between the 13 colonies in america and Great Britian. With events leading to the actual start of the war; the first shots of the war were shot at the battle of lexington and concord, and th efrench entered the war for the americans after the battle of saratoga. And ended after the battle of Yorktown and the signing of the treaty of paris.
  • The Storming of the Bastille

    The storming of Bastille is known as the point in which the rench revolution turned into a war. Occurred in the morning of July 14, it resulted in the capturing of Bastille and the beginning of the rebellion in France.
  • Period: to

    French Revolution

    The french revolution was where France under went a great political change, and the old aristocraties fell and were replaced by a new goverment. Began in 1789 with the convocation of the Estates-General, the tennis court oath and the the assualt on the Bastille. Ended in 1799 when Napolean Bonaparte assumed control of the French empire.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man

    The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was ratified by the National Constituent Assembly of France on August 26, 1789. It is a very important document of the French Revolution and established fundamental rights for the French citizens, although it didn't ensure any rights of women or slaves. Was the first step for a constitution for france.
  • Louis XVI Executed & Marie Antinotte (1793)

    King Louis XVI ruled from May 10, 1774 till October 1, 1791 where he was executed by guillotine on January 21, 1793, and became the only king of france to be executed. Marie Antoinette became Queen of France when Louise XVI assumed the throne as his wife. She herself was convicted of treason and executed 9 months after King Louis XVI on October 16th 1763.
  • Toussiant L. Ouverture

    Was a very important leader in the Haitian revolution, and leader in the slave rebellion of 1791 in the French colony of Saint Domingue. He worked to help better and improve the colony, restored the plantation system, and negotiated with world powers. Died in 1803, and the revolution went on under his lieutenant intill independce was declared in 1804.
  • Haitian Revolution

    Lasting between August 14, 1791 till January 1, 1804 in the French colony of Saint Domingue. The rebellion was the only slave rebellion in which a permanent independent nation was established. This revoltion is often viewed as a defining moment in the history of Africans in the New world.
  • Whitney's Cotton Gin

    The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney, and his invention was patented March 14, 1794. This machine seperates cotton fibers from the seeds it has, where as it was done with hard manual labor, now can be done with the ease of a machine. The machine helped the growth of the cotton industry in the southern states and also is sometime critized for the increased of slaves usage due to the increased profitability of cotton growth. Also said to be a direct contributing factor of the american civil
  • Period: to

    Napoleon Bonaparte

    Napoleon Bonaparte ruled France from May 1804 to 1815 as Emperor of the French, and sought to spread revolutionary ideas and conquered much of Europe. A great military leader, and engaged in the Napoleonic Wars which involved almost every major European Power. By the end of his life Napoleon was exiled and later died in February 1821, even though there were many plans to get Napoleon out of exile.
  • Britian Outlaws Slave Trade

    The Slave Trade Act of 1807 or "An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade" was an act of parliment in the United Kingdom that outlawed the slave trade in the British Empire, but the Act did not abolish slavery itself. Slavery was completely abolished and was made illegal by the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.
  • Congress of Vienna

    From September, 1814 to June, 1815 the Congress of Vienna was held in Vienna. It was made to solve the many problems coming from the French revolutionary wars, the wars rage in Europe by Napoleonic, and the disbanding of the Holy Roman Empire. The result of this meet was the creation of a new redrawn political map that established the boundries of European countries, later the meet served as a base for other oraniztaions like the League of Nations and the United Nations.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    The battle of waterloo was Napoleons last battle and marked the end of the French Empire and Napoleons rule and his return to exile. The battle was fought by the French Empires forces led by Napoleon versus the seventh coalition (U.K, Prussia, and other allied countries opposed to Napolean) with a fench loss.
  • Mexico Gains Independence from Spain

    After a war for idependence that raged for 11 years against the Spanish Empire (1810-1821), Mexico gained independence from spain with the signing of the Treaty of Cordoba, in which Spain recognized Mexico's independence. The official start of the rebellion of the mexican populace when a mexican preist declared independence from the Spanish crown and started a war known as the Grito de Dolores which would evolve into the full version of the war of independence and ended with its independence.
  • Brazilian Independence

    Brazil "declared" independence from Portugal on September 7, 1822. Political events leading to the complete and official independence of Brazil took place from 1821 to 1823 when the last of Portugues empire was expelled from the Brazilian Empire.
  • Dissolution of the Janissaries

    The dissl\olution of the Janissaries came by the Auspicious Incident of 1826, where Ottoman sultan Mahmud II incited the Janissaries to revolt so that they could be crushed and get rid of. This was meant to be done so the Ottoman Empire could modernize their army of which the Janissaries would not allow. The janissaries were effictively destroyed by the ending of the incedent.
  • Period: to

    Teh Afrikaners Great Trek

    Taking place during the 1830's and the 1840's, the Great Trek was a migration of farmers that were all mostly migrants from mainland western Europe away from British control in the Cape Colony to more Northeastern and eastern lands.
  • End of Atlantic Slave Trade

    The last country to ban the Atlantic Slave trade was brazil in 1831, slave trade still countinued illegally across the globe by british enforcement finally ended this Atlantic trade of slaves.
  • Greek Independence

    The Revoltion is celebrated on the 25th of March, but Greece wasn't recognized as an independent nation intill May 25.After 11 years of fighting and European intervention, Greece gained independence from the Ottoman Empire only after some years of negotating with the 3 great powers of Russia, The U.K and france decided to intervene by each sending thier navy in to support the revolt.
  • Invention of the Telegraph

    The telegraph is a device that sends and recieves signals by wire, or wirelessly. The telegraph was not invented by Samuel Morse niether was it invented on this date. But 1838 was the year in which Morse's telegraph was first successfully tested and the creation of morse code which we credi Morse with the most. The telegraph eased communicatons acrosgreaat distances and allowed countries to communicate almost instantaneously, this affected the industrializing world greatly.
  • Period: to

    Opium Wars

    The Opium wars are two wars fought between the Qing Dynasty and the British Empire over the trade of opium. The First Opium War (1839-1842) was started when the empire stopped the opium trade and the British sent its naval forces to reopen the ports. And ended with the Treaty of Nanking, which forced China to open 4 ports to Britian and Hong Kong became British territory, gave extraterritoriality to the British, and pay an indemnity. The second Opium war (1856-1860) was also a Britsh victory.
  • Revolutions in Austria, Germany, Hungary, and Italy (Revoltions of 1848)

    Starting in France, a wave of revolutions went across most of Europe, called sometimes the year of revolution, it affected over 50 countries. The countires being revolutionalized didn't really cooperate with each other, and the results from the revolution weren't really big if any at all; except for the abolition of serfdom in Austria & Hungary.
  • Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864)

    A civil war that took place in China from December 1850 to August 1864 that resulted in the weaking and victory for the Qing Dynasty and the Fall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and is known as one of the deadliest military conflicts in history. Hong Xiuquan established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and its army controlled large parts of southern China, the Kingdom tried many reforms and also tried to replace old religon with a form of Christanity.Successfully repressed with British French help.
  • Commodore Mattew Perry in Japan

    Commodore Perry arrived in Tokyo Bay and forced the Japanese to negotiate. The returned in March 1854 and signed the Treaty of peace and Amity that still prohibited trade, but opened three ports to the americans. Other countrys followed suite and made similar treaties with Japan. After the initial apperance of Perry in Japan, the Japanese went in the direction of improving their military and fortifying their country.
  • Crimean War

    Considered to be one of the first modern wars, first military use of railways and the telegraph. Resulted in the Allied victory of the French, British, Ottoman Empires with the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Russian Empire. Most of the conflict took place on the Crimean Peninsula, and the conflict was actually part of a contest between th emajor European powers for the influence over the Ottoman empires territories.
  • Sepoy Rebellion (1857-1859)

    The Sepoy Rebellion or the Indian Rebellion of 1857 started as a mutiny of sepoys of the East India Company and turned into a fulll rebellion that resulted in the British crown having direct control of what now became the British Indian Empire. Also led to the final collapse of the Mughal Empire and ended the Company rule in India.
  • British take over India

    After the sepoy rebellion,dissolving the company rule,the crown ruled India from 1858 to 1947. Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress of India in 1877, and then later india was partioned into two sovereign dominion states, Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
  • Emancipation of the Russian Serfs

    The first and the most important reform effected by Alexander II of Russia, The 1861 Emancipation Manifesto emancipated the serfs of private and household serfs, and gave more than 23 million people liberty from serfdom. State owned serfs weren't emancipated till 1866, and at the time serfs counted for around 38% of the Russian population.
  • Meiji Restoration

    Was a chain of events that led to the restoration of imperial rule in Japan in 1868. After Commondore Perry showed up in Tokyo bay it was evident that Japan was behind in the technological aspect in the world, and the restoration was based to bring great change in every aspect of Japan's structure and led to their industrailization.
  • Opening of the Suez Canal

    After 10 years of construction, it was opened in 1869, and created a way of transportation by water between Europe and Asia with out the need of navigating around the African continent.
  • Imperialization of Africa

    Another name for this is the Scramble for Africa, where European powers invaded, attacked, occupied, and annexed the African continent from 1881 to WWI in 1914. Natives in the african continent tried to resist but the colonizers tecnology like the machine gun made it hard for resistance. The Berlin confrence (1884-1885) was holded to attempt to help reduce the imperial competion of african lands.
  • Boxer Rebellion

    The Boxer Rebellion was and movement by the Righteous Harmony Society (Boxer in english) that opposed the imperial and missionary presense in China. In response the Eight Nation Alliance was formed and crushed the rebellion and forced the Chinese government to pay a very high indemnity.
  • Aswan Dam

    The Aswna Dam was built to reduce the flooding and help support the population growth in the areas of the lower Nile. Construction starting in 1899 and completed in 1902, the dam showed to be not right for it puposes in flood protection and was raises twice in 1907 and 1929, thought these modification weren't enough and led to the consruction of the Aswan High Dam in 1946.
  • Overthrow of Qing Dynasty

    Started with the Wuchang Uprising , the revolution was fueled by the goverments lack of restraint in foriegn intervention, and corruption, and being ruled by a minority. The revolutionary forces were called the Chinese Revolutionary forces and successfully over threw the Qing Dynasty on February 12, 1912. Resulted with the establishment of the Provisional Governmant of the People Republic of China, and the declaration of independce from Mongolia and Tibet.
  • African Natioanl Congress

    The ANC (African National Congress) was founded to increase the rights of the black South African population. Officialy became known as the ANC in 1923.
  • Period: to

    World War I

    Triggered by the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria which brought in many of the alliance that have been formed in the past, and in weeks the major powers were at war. Turned into a war of attrition as the battles stalemated and a trench line was formed, not muched changed intill after a German offensive in 1918 when the United Sates forces entered the trenched and pushed the Germans back intill germany agreed to a cease fire which is now known as Armistice Day November 11,1918
  • Panama Canal Completed and first used

    Constructed started in 1904 and was completed in 1914. the canal is a ship canal in Panama that connects the Pacific ocean to the Atlantic ocean and is vital conduct for international trade.
  • Russian Revolution

    -Located in Russia in 1917
    - Was the revolution that destroyed the Russian Tsar autocracy, and had the Abdication of Nicholas II
    -Ended the Russian Empire and led to the Bolsheviks takeover and the creation of the Soviet Union.
  • Wilson's 14 point plan

    -Was a plan presented by President Woodrow Wilson at Congress in January 8th, 1918.
    -Was made to assure that the war being fought in Europe was for a moral cause and to also assure that peace would follow the wars end. Wasn't really ever put into full effect, and only the clauses that favored the allies were used.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    -Signed on 28, June 1919
    -Ended the state of war between Germany and the Allies
    -Signed 5 years after the assaination of Archduke Ferdinand
    -Had the famous war guilt clauses, made Germany pay heavy reparations, and the rid of the german military.
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    League of Nations

    -First meeting held on the 16th of January 1920
    -Was a result of WWI, and was created to maintain and keep world peace.
    -At its greatest extent it had 58 members
    Was finally dissolved when it fail to stop WWII, when its purpose was to avoid any futur war.
  • Civil War in China

    Was a fight between th eRepublic of China and the Communist Party of China for control of the Chinese mainland.
    resulted in the communist victory on mainland china, and the creation of the Republic of China being moved to tawain, there has been no armistice ro peace treaty between the two factions.
  • Period: to

    Stalins 5-year Plans

    The 5 years plans were made to help improve aspects such as capital goods, conumer goods, agriculture, transportation,communications, healt, education, and welfare.
    -Each plan had a certain priority such as the 3rd plan which was made to be able to produce armaments and items for the defense of the Soviet Union.
  • Period: to

    Great Depression

    -The Great Depression was world wide and affected almost every country in the world and spread quickly with the stock market crash of Oct 29, 1929.
    -The great depression affected all greatly form the rich to the poor. Unemployment rose all around and heavy industry was heavily affected,
    -Lasted till the start of WWII
  • Hitler comes to power

    -On January 30th, 1933 Hitler is was appointed Chancellor of Germany, and Fuhrer of Germany on August 2nd 1934.
    -Hilter transformed germany into a dictatorship based on Nazi ideology.
    -His goals were to eventually create a new order of a pure Nazi germany continent of Europe. Led to WWII
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    -Started with the invasion of Poland in 1939
    -Ended with the end of the war with asia on August 15, 1945 when Japan surrendered.
    - Was the deadliest conflict in human history
    -Led to the Cold War between the Soviet union and the United States.
  • Creation of Pakistan

    Part of Northwest India was partitioned in 1947, after movements that called for a sovereign and independent Muslim state called Pakistan.
  • Period: to

    Cold War

    Was a conflict of military tensions, economic competition, arms race, and technological competitions such as the space race between the United States, the Soviet Union and it's allies. Resulted with the dissolution of the USSR and leaving the United States as the only world power.
  • Indian Independence

    On August 15th 1947, India becomes a sovereign nation, free from British Rule since Britian after WWII no longer had the support or the resources to maintain India under its power.
  • Gandhi is assainated

    Gandhi is shot 3 time in the chest and dies in 1984.
    -He was a prominent figure in the Indian Independence movement, and assumed leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, and led campains for india's independence from foriegn powers.
  • Formation of NATO

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organiztion was a military alliance that was built to have a military alliance of memebr countries were a system of collective defense incase of attack by another party. NATO is stil active to this day, refoucused onto the war in Afghanistan.
  • Warsaw Pact

    Was the communist response to the creation of the NATO alliance.
    -Established on May 14th, 1995
    -Disestablished July 1st, 1991
    -Was also a mutual defense treaty similar to its counter part the NATO pact.
  • Great Leap Forward

    -Was a campian of the Communist Party of China in the Peoples Republic of China to quickly and greatly transform the country by it's vast population, through industrialization, agriculturaliztion, and collectivization.
    -Led by Mao Zedong.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis

    -Was over Soviets missile being placed in the Country of Cuba
    -Was the closest instance that the world has come to Nuclear War
    -The U.S promises to never again invade Cuba, and the Soviet Union pormises to remove missiles in cuba, and the united states removes it missiles from turkey and europe.
    -Also resulted in the creation of the Hotline agreement.
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    Iran Iraq War

    Was a conflict between the forces of the countries of Iraq and Iran in the longest convetional war of the 20th century usually called the persian gulf wat in english. Started when Iraq invaded Iran, and ended with a United Nations cease fire with U.N Security Council Resolution 598.
  • Tiananmen Square

    Were a series of demonstation in Beijing's tiananmen square that started April 15th 1989. The demonstrations were mostly non-violent, and were sparked by the death of General Secretary of State Hu Yaobang. On June 4th of the same year, tanks and troops proceeded to tiananmen Square and fired onto the protesters with live rounds. Deaths are from the 100's to the 1000's
  • Reunification of germany

    A process that joined the East German Republic and the west Federal Republic of Germany and also the reunification of Berlin into a single city with the fall of the Berlin wall.
  • USSR Disintegrates

    Marking the end of the cold war between the United States and the USSR. The Soviet union was formally dissolved after the disintegration that took place from Jan 19th, 1990-December 31, 1991, and the 1991 Soviet coup d'e'tat attempt.
  • September 11, 2011

    -Was a series of attacks organized by al-Qaeda on the U.S on 9/11/01
    -4 planes were hijacked by al-Qaeda terrorist, 2 crashed into the 2world trade center towers (twin towers), 1 into the pentagon, and one in a field near Shanksville in rual pennsylvinia.
    -Started the "War on terror" and enacted the USA PATRIOT Act.
  • Establishment of Holy Roman Empire

    Otto I is Crowned Eperor of the Romans
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    Sui Dynasty

    Unified China by ending the division of rival regimes. Reunited the north and south of China and made alot of reforms such as the equal field system, and constructed the grand canal. In this period the great wall was extended and Buddhism was spread.
  • Period: to

    Tang Dynasty

    Li family seized power and founded the Tang empire, and at the time the most populous city in the world, compared to the earlier golden age of the Han empire in both military strength/campains, population and even surpassing.
  • Period: to Apr 8, 1279

    Song Empire

    Came after the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and saw the first use of gunpowder, was the first government in history to issue banknotes on paper, and developed number of tecnological advances.
  • Period: to Apr 10, 1349

    Kievan Russia

    Also known as Kievan Rus', it occupied lands streching south to the black sea, east to Volga, and west to the kingdom of Poland. During the Mongol invasion of 1347-1340, Kievan Russia ultimatlely disentegrated.
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    Holy Roman Empire

    By 16th century came to be know "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" because of its predominant German population.
    Located in central Europe it remained together for around a millennium ruled by a Holy roman emperor, by the end of it's last century the Empire was more a loose union of territories. The empire was dissolved by the Treaty of Pressburg.
  • Period: to Apr 9, 1235

    Ghana Empire

    The Ghana Empire or aslo known as the Wagadou Empire, first appeared in documentary sources around 830 CE, but is know to have been established before this date. Very big in the trade of gold and salt, which allowed it to have large urban centers. Reasons for its decline are still uncertain due to lack of evidence, but is thought to have been incorparated into the Empire of Mali.
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    Charlemange was King of the Franks from 768 and had his coronation by Pope Leo III for Emperor of the Romans on the 25th of December 800 CE. This made him a short time rival of the Byzantine Emperor, he expanded his Franksh Kingdom into an empire, and took in much of Wester/Eastern Europe. He aslo conquered Italy by the time of his coronation of Imperator Augustus. He is often viewed as the founding father fo both German and French monarcgies,he united most of western Europe as the romans did.