Modern Age

  • 1420

    Florence Cathedral's dome, by Brunelleschi

    Florence Cathedral's dome, by Brunelleschi
    The Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore is truly an architectural masterpiece and a historical landmark. Brunelleschi's dome is famous, not only for its impressive size, but also for its innovative design and the construction technique used.The dome was designed and built by Filippo Brunelleschi during the Italian Renaissance. Its design was revolutionary for the time, and construction began in 1420.It is considered one of the most important constructions in Europe since Roman times.
  • 1498

    Pietá, by Michelangelo Buonarroti

    Pietá, by Michelangelo Buonarroti
    This period places it in the context of the Italian Renaissance and marks the beginning of the High Renaissance. Represents the "Sixth Sorrow" of the Virgin Mary, which is the pain of Mary holding the body of her son Jesus after the crucifixion. Michelangelo was inspired by a passage from Dante Alighieri's "Divine Comedy" to depict Mary as younger than Jesus.This work is considered the beginning of the High Renaissance.
  • Period: 1500 to

    Baroque art

    was an artistic and cultural style that flourished from the early 17th century until the 1750s. This style manifested itself in various artistic forms, such as architecture, music, dance, painting, sculpture, and poetry. The Baroque followed the Renaissance and Mannerism, preceding Rococo and Neoclassical styles.
  • Period: 1500 to

    Neoclassical art

    It was a Western cultural movement that encompassed various artistic expressions such as decorative and visual arts, literature, theater, music and architecture. This movement was inspired by the art and culture of antiquity, seeking to emulate the classical aesthetic and philosophical ideals of ancient Greece and Rome.
  • Period: 1500 to


    It was a historical period and cultural movement that marked the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity, spanning the 15th and 16th centuries. This period was characterized by an effort to revive and surpass the ideas and achievements of classical antiquity. Although standard periodization places the Renaissance in the 15th and 16th centuries, some advocates of a "long Renaissance" extend it from the 14th century to the 17th century.
  • 1509

    The school of Athens, by Raphael Sanzio

    The school of Athens, by Raphael Sanzio
    It is part of the series of frescoes that decorate the rooms known as Stanze di Raffaello in the Apostolic Palace of the Vatican.Raphael incorporates Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo into the painting, portraying them as Plato and Heraclitus, respectively. This gesture symbolizes Raphael's recognition and admiration for these two giants of art and science of his time.It symbolizes the revival of classical Greek philosophy and culture in Europe during the Renaissance.
  • Period: 1516 to 1556

    The reign of Carlos l

    He is a member of the Spanish royal family who reigned as King of Spain from November 22, 1975 until his abdication on June 19, 2014. After his abdication, he is often called the "king emeritus" in Spain.
  • Period: 1520 to 1517

    The revolt of the Comuneros in Castilla

    was a significant uprising that took place between 1520 and 1521. This revolt was led mainly by the cities of Castile, and its origin lies in a combination of political, economic and social factors. After the death of Isabel I in 1504, the Crown of Castile plunged into a situation of political instability, exacerbated by the mental illness of the heiress Juana. During this period, the nobility assumed an important role in the government, with King Ferdinand II of Aragon acting as regent.
  • 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    Peace of Augsburg
    It marked a significant milestone in European history and in the relationship between the different religious denominations.The Peace of Augsburg was negotiated between Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, and the League of Schmalkalden, a coalition of Protestant German princes.The peace officially ended the religious strife between followers of Lutheranism and Catholicism within the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Period: 1556 to

    The reign of Felipe ll

    He was a key figure in the history of Spain and the Spanish Empire during the 16th century. He first married his cousin Mary I of England in 1554. After Mary's death in 1558, he married Elizabeth of Valois and later Anne of Austria. He had several children, including Philip III, who succeeded him to the throne.
  • Period: 1568 to

    The Eighty Years War

    The conflict continued for decades, with the participation of foreign powers, such as England and France, supporting the rebels. In 1581, the United Provinces (also known as the Northern Netherlands) declared their independence from Spain through the Act of Abjuration, although war continued for many years.
  • Period: 1568 to 1571

    The rebellion of the Alpujarras

    The forced conversion of Muslims to Christianity after the conquest of Granada in 1492 was one of the main causes of the tensions that led to the rebellions in the Alpujarras. The Crown's response to the rebellion was brutal. After the defeat of the rebels, significant reprisals were carried out against the Moriscos, with mass executions, expulsions, and the dispersal of the Moorish population.
  • 1579

    The signment of the Union of Arras

    The signment of the Union of Arras
    The alliance was formed by the county of Artois, the county of Hainaut and the city of Douai. These territories were part of the Habsburg Netherlands and were united in response to the religious policies of the Prince of Orange and the States General of the Netherlands, who were leading the resistance against Spanish sovereignty.This treaty established a reconciliation between the Union territories and Spain, marking a division in the resistance against Spanish sovereignty in the Netherlands.
  • 1579

    The signment of the Union of Utrecht

    The signment of the Union of Utrecht
    It is a fundamental event in the
    history of the Netherlands and marks the establishment of the Republic of the Seven
    United Provinces.The Union of Utrecht is
    considered as the founding act of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, which
    It was established as an entity independent of Spanish rule. This republic was not
    recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Twelve Years' Truce in 1609.
  • The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England

    The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England
    The primary objective of the Spanish Armada was to sail through the English Channel, join forces with the Duke of Parma in Flanders, and execute an invasion of England. England, led by Queen Elizabeth I, opposed the Spanish Armada. The English fleet, based in Plymouth, was faster and more maneuverable than the larger Spanish galleons.The Spanish Armada's defeat was a pivotal moment in the undeclared Anglo-Spanish War.
  • Apollo and Daphne, by Bernini

    Apollo and Daphne, by Bernini
    The sculpture was commissioned by Cardinal Scipione Borghese, who played a significant role in defining Baroque sculpture through various works commissioned from Bernini. Bernini, like many artists of his time, didn't execute the entire sculpture by his own hand.The sculpture's enthusiastic reception speaks to its artistic success and its ability to resonate with the audience, showcasing Bernini's mastery in capturing dynamic and emotionally charged moments in stone.
  • Saint Peter´s square project by Bernini

    Saint Peter´s square project by Bernini
    The obelisk and columns are distinctive features that give the square its grandeur and serve to direct attention to the façade of St. Peter's Basilica. The trapezoidal shape of the plaza not only accommodates the existing structures, but also creates a dramatic perspective for visitors, enhancing the overall experience.It remains not only a significant religious site, but also a masterpiece of architecture and urban design that continues to captivate visitors from around the world.
  • The Spinners, by Velázquez

    The Spinners, by Velázquez
    It is a masterpiece by the Spanish painter Diego Velázquez and is located in the Prado Museum in Madrid, Spain. In 1948, Diego Angula proposed that the iconography suggested Ovid's Fable of Arachne.The painting was commissioned by Don Pedro de Arce, hunter of King Felipe IV. It entered the Spanish royal collection in the 18th century and was damaged during the fire of the Real Alcázar in Madrid in 1734.
  • Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David

    Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David
    is an outstanding work by the French painter Jacques-Louis David, created between 1784 and 1785, and currently exhibited in the Louvre in Paris.In a corner of the painting, David represents a crying woman, identified as Camilla, sister of the Horatii.The visual composition highlights the three Horacio brothers extending their hands towards their father, who hands them the swords. This gesture symbolizes his commitment and willingness to sacrifice himself for Rome.
  • Carlos lV of Spain and his family, by Francisco de Goya

    Carlos lV of Spain and his family, by Francisco de Goya
    is a notable group portrait painting by Spanish artist Francisco Goya. The work was begun in 1800, shortly after Goya became the first chamber painter to the Spanish royal family, and was completed in the summer of 1801.This group portrait not only captures the image of the royal family at a specific moment, but also fits into the artistic tradition of portraits of Spanish royalty.