Microscope and cell biology By abboy Jan 1, 1665 Cells Discovered Robert Hooke designed his own microscope and discovered matter made up of what he called cells. Jan 1, 1673 Important Discoveries Antony van Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria, free-living and parasitic microscopic protists, sperm cells, blood cells and more. All of this from a very simple device that could magnify up to 300X. Jan 1, 1759 C.F. Wolff C.F. Wolff proposed a general cell theory. Jan 1, 1823 New Lens Achromatic lenses introduced now provide resolution of 1 micron or 1/1000 mm Jan 1, 1831 Nucleus Robert Brown names the cell nucleus and suggests its importance in fertillization Jan 1, 1838 Plants Matthias J. Schleiden published a cell theory as applied to plants. Jan 1, 1839 Cell Theory Begins Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden formally propose the "Cell Theory." Jan 1, 1839 So it Begins Theador Schwann published a work that had the first statement of cell theory: All living things are made up of cells. Jan 1, 1840 Micrograph Donne' publishes the first micrographs in France. Jan 1, 1855 Membranes Robert Remak develops a method to isolate the cell membrane and proves it divides a cell Jan 1, 1858 Cells Generating Rudolf Virchow proposed that living cells come from pre-existiong cells Jan 1, 1873 Theory of the Microscope Ernst Abbe made clear the difference between magnification and resolution. His widely used formula to calculate resolution is based on his wave light theory. Jan 1, 1873 Addition of the Turret Ernst Leitz microscope is introduced with a revolving mount (turret) for 5 objectives. Jan 1, 1878 Oil Immersion Lens Introduced oil immersion lens (cedar oil) that resulted in a homogeneous optical path. Jan 1, 1879 Mitosis Walther Flemming discovers mitosis. Jan 1, 1880 Improving August Kohler- Microscope lamp with filters worked out light source and condenser position to obtain the best image projection. Jan 1, 1880 Coming in Ready microtomes begin to appear for sample preparation. Up to the point specimens were prepared by sharp knives. Jan 1, 1882 Chromosomes Walther Fleming used dyes to stain cells; he discovered rods he called “chromosomes.” Jan 1, 1886 Red, Yellow and Blue Ernst Abbe designs apochromatic objective that brings red, yellow and blue into one focus Jan 1, 1887 The Same Number Edouard van Beneden discovered that all organisms of the same species have the same number of chromosomes. Jan 1, 1903 Human Reproduction Sutton proved that sperm and egg cells have one of each pair of chromosomes. Jan 1, 1904 Microscope by Zeiss The first commercial UV microscope by Zeiss. Jan 1, 1930 More Discoveries Fritz Zernike discovered he could view unstained cells using the phase angle of rays. Jan 1, 1931 First Electron Microscope Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska construct the first electron microscope. Jan 1, 1933 It Gets Better Ruska builds the first electron microscope that exceeds the resolution of the light microscope. Jan 1, 1937 Advancements First scanning electron microscope is built. Jan 1, 1939 Industry Siemens supplies the first commercially available electron microscope. Jan 1, 1941 Enzyme Production George W. Beadle and Edward L. Tatum discovered that genes control the production of enzymes. Jan 1, 1966 Genetic Code The Genetic code was discovered; scientists are now able to predict characteristics by studying DNA. Jan 1, 1982 Measuring Current Scanning Probe Microscope is invented and works by measuring current. Jan 1, 1983 Lasers Scanning laser confocal microscope is commercially available Jan 1, 1986 Measuring Force Atomic Force Microscope is invented and measures force instead of current. Jan 1, 1998 To Many Animals? Three generations of mice were cloned from the nuclei of an adult, eight identical calves were cloned, the rough draft of the human genome map was produced.