Microscope and cell biology

By abboy
  • Cells Discovered

    Cells Discovered
    Robert Hooke designed his own microscope and discovered matter made up of what he called cells.
  • Important Discoveries

    Important Discoveries
    Antony van Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria, free-living and parasitic microscopic protists, sperm cells, blood cells and more. All of this from a very simple device that could magnify up to 300X.
  • C.F. Wolff

    C.F. Wolff
    C.F. Wolff proposed a general cell theory.
  • New Lens

    Achromatic lenses introduced now provide resolution of 1 micron or 1/1000 mm
  • Nucleus

    Robert Brown names the cell nucleus and suggests its importance in fertillization
  • Plants

    Matthias J. Schleiden published a cell theory as applied to plants.
  • Cell Theory Begins

    Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden formally propose the "Cell Theory."
  • So it Begins

    So it Begins
    Theador Schwann published a work that had the first statement of cell theory: All living things are made up of cells.
  • Micrograph

    Donne' publishes the first micrographs in France.
  • Membranes

    Robert Remak develops a method to isolate the cell membrane and proves it divides a cell
  • Cells Generating

    Cells Generating
    Rudolf Virchow proposed that living cells come from pre-existiong cells
  • Theory of the Microscope

    Theory of the Microscope
    Ernst Abbe made clear the difference between magnification and resolution. His widely used formula to calculate resolution is based on his wave light theory.
  • Addition of the Turret

    Addition of the Turret
    Ernst Leitz microscope is introduced with a revolving mount (turret) for 5 objectives.
  • Oil Immersion Lens

    Oil Immersion Lens
    Introduced oil immersion lens (cedar oil) that resulted in a homogeneous optical path.
  • Mitosis

    Walther Flemming discovers mitosis.
  • Improving

    August Kohler- Microscope lamp with filters worked out light source and condenser position to obtain the best image projection.
  • Coming in Ready

    Coming in Ready
    microtomes begin to appear for sample preparation. Up to the point specimens were prepared by sharp knives.
  • Chromosomes

    Walther Fleming used dyes to stain cells; he discovered rods he called “chromosomes.”
  • Red, Yellow and Blue

    Ernst Abbe designs apochromatic objective that brings red, yellow and blue into one focus
  • The Same Number

    The Same Number
    Edouard van Beneden discovered that all organisms of the same species have the same number of chromosomes.
  • Human Reproduction

    Sutton proved that sperm and egg cells have one of each pair of chromosomes.
  • Microscope by Zeiss

    Microscope by Zeiss
    The first commercial UV microscope by Zeiss.
  • More Discoveries

    More Discoveries
    Fritz Zernike discovered he could view unstained cells using the phase angle of rays.
  • First Electron Microscope

    First Electron Microscope
    Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska construct the first electron microscope.
  • It Gets Better

    It Gets Better
    Ruska builds the first electron microscope that exceeds the resolution of the light microscope.
  • Advancements

    First scanning electron microscope is built.
  • Industry

    Siemens supplies the first commercially available electron microscope.
  • Enzyme Production

    Enzyme Production
    George W. Beadle and Edward L. Tatum discovered that genes control the production of enzymes.
  • Genetic Code

    Genetic Code
    The Genetic code was discovered; scientists are now able to predict characteristics by studying DNA.
  • Measuring Current

    Measuring Current
    Scanning Probe Microscope is invented and works by measuring current.
  • Lasers

    Scanning laser confocal microscope is commercially available
  • Measuring Force

    Measuring Force
    Atomic Force Microscope is invented and measures force instead of current.
  • To Many Animals?

    To Many Animals?
    Three generations of mice were cloned from the nuclei of an adult, eight identical calves were cloned, the rough draft of the human genome map was produced.