MEDIA EVOLUTION

  • 100

    Christians invented codex, a document that is a prototype of a book which uses papyrus pages.

    Christians invented codex, a document that is a prototype of a book which uses papyrus pages.
    Pages facing another were bound together for easy reading. Flipping only the pages instead of unraveling a long papyrus.
  • 1394

    Johann Gutenberg invented the printing technology called movable type machine.

    Johann Gutenberg invented the printing technology called movable type machine.
    Moving letters which came to be the distinguishing feature of his invention from the woodblock could only be used at any point in time. The machine was a frame that could hold the type covered in ink on one place. Afterwards, a piece of paper would be placed on top, secured through a corkscrew device derived from the technology of making wine. The process made it possible to produce multiple copies of pages at a time. And the Bible was one of his earliest and most famous creations.
  • 1401

    Paper became a form of technology.

    Paper became a form of technology.
    By the 15th century, the technology was already paper.
  • 1500

    Establishment of printing press , the first medium designed for the masses.

    Establishment of printing press , the first medium designed for the masses.
    Printing presses have been established in 242 cities across various countries, mostly in Western Europe. Doctrina Cristiana, a treatise on the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church is believed to be the first book printed in the Philippines.
  • Production of the first newspapers in England that was patronized by the merchants.

    Production of the first newspapers in England that was patronized by the merchants.
    Newspapers were produced through the Gutenberg printing press and it was reportedly produced in England and patronized by merchants. The ruling monarchs were apprehensive about newspapers and thus restricted their production.
  • Emergence of free press that serves as a strong rhetoric against authoritarian states.

    Emergence of free press that serves as a strong	rhetoric against authoritarian states.
    McQuail cites that the newspaper is a more significant innovation than the book. It was a new literary with social and cultural form that catered to town-based businesses and professional people, a new class emerging in Western Europe. He also cites the following defining features of a newspaper: regular appearance, commercial circulation, serving multiple purposes, and its irrefutably public character.
  • Rise of the adversarial press.

    Turrow (2009,300) notes the rise of an adversarial press. defined as a press that had the ability to conduct dialogue and even argue with the government. He further notes that it was triggered by the imposition of taxes on paper by the British empire, so it could generate the much needed revenues to finance its wars during the 1760s and the 1770s.
  • Development of steam powered cylinder press.

    Development of steam powered cylinder press.
    The development of the steam engine gave rise to the steam-powered cylinder press, which dramatically lowered the cost of newspapers. Such advances in the technologies of scale and the rise of the working class transformed the newspaper into a truly mass medium.
  • Rise of the newspaper in the Philippines.

    Rise of the newspaper in the Philippines.
    La Esperanza, the first daily newspaper published in the country. Other early newspapers were Diario de Manila (1848) and Boletin Oficial de Filipinas (1852).
    As an institution, the publisher is based in an urban/semi-urban setting; enjoys relative freedom but is subject to government regulation, thus subjects itself to self-censorship; exists in the public domain; and is marketed as a commodity, thus expects profit generated from its sales.
  • Invention of film as a mass medium. The first film company is Kodak founded by George Eastman and Henry A. Strong.

    Invention of film as a mass medium. The first film company is Kodak founded by George Eastman and Henry A. Strong.
    George Eastman invented the film and built a company that would be known as Kodak. But it was Thomas Edison and his assistant, William Dickson, who turned the use of photographic film into a material that can be moved in front of a lens at a constant speed to result into several photographs, each one different from the other one because of a slight change in the movement of the subject. When that stripped was developed and viewed by the naked eye, it gave the illusion of a moving object.
  • Louis and Augusto Lumiere developed the technology of film projectors.

    Louis and Augusto Lumiere developed the technology of film projectors.
    The two Frenchmen further developed the technology of film projectors. Edison would still improve the technology developed by the Lumiere brothers with large screen projecting. By 1896, the Edison vita scope was on public debut in New York, where it showed a film entitled Rough Sea at Dover by Robert Paul.
  • The word "television" was used in a magazine called the Scientific American.

    Radio and television followed very closely. Television was already used in Scientific American, an American popular science magazine.
  • First telecast of a television program.

    First telecast of a television program.
    By 1928, the first telecast of a television program took place, transmitting from the experimental studio of General Electric in New York City.
  • Introduction of electronic scanning.

    Introduction of electronic scanning.
    The Radio Corporation of America introduced electronic scanning, a much improved technology from the mechanical scanning introduced earlier. By 1939, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt became the first president to appear on the tube.
  • Establishment of the commercial television in United States.

    Establishment of the commercial television in United States.
  • IBM shipped its first electronic computer called IBM 701 and known as ‘Defense Calculator’

    IBM shipped its first electronic computer called IBM 701 and known as ‘Defense Calculator’
    The IBM 701, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was announced to the public on April 29, 1952, and was IBM’s first commercial scientific computer. It was designed by Nathaniel Rochester and based on the IAS machine at Princeton. Its successor was the IBM 704, its business computer siblings were the IBM 702 and IBM 650. It sold 19 machines to research laboratories, aircraft companies, and the federal government.
  • First official telecast of Alto Broadcasting System.

    First official telecast of Alto Broadcasting System.
    James Lindenberg, an American engineer, was not fully successful with his attempt to establish a television station but soon he was able to team up with Antonio Quirino, and together, they would establish the Alto Broadcasting System where he would serve as the general manager. Their first official telecast was in October 23, 1953.
  • Creation of ARPANET.

    Creation of ARPANET.
    The ARPANET was created and considered as the predecessor of the internet. It was a large area-wide network created by the US military, specifically the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency to serve as a ground for networking technologies that will link the military to various federal agencies, even the universities.
  • Transition from ARPANET to Internet.

    Transition from ARPANET to Internet.
    The transition from ARPANET to Internet commenced to serve more purposes other than catering to the military. The first innovation was the TCP/IP architecture as proposed by Stanford University. It is considered the standard protocol by which networks communicate.
  • TCP/IP standard protocol proposed by Stanford University becomes universally adopted.

    Commands for electronic mails were standardized, thereby making it a lot easier for the layman to navigate the increasingly complex world of the Internet.
  • First operation of the Bulletin Board System.

    First operation of the Bulletin Board System.
    The first local Bulletin Board System, otherwise known as the BBS, is a computer system running a software that allows users to connect and exchange messages and information using a terminal program. It started as early as 1896 and was operated using a software that ran on an IBM XT Clone PC, with a modem that ran on 1200 bpm. Subscription fees ran as high as Php 1000 per month.
  • Enabling of inter-BBS connectivity.

    Inter-BBS connectivity was enabled through the Philippine FidoNet exchange. One bulletin board system in Metro Manila is now able to connect to other bulletin board systems in the same area.
  • Broadening of email gateways and services and launching of PhilNet project.

    By the early years of the 90s, email gateways and services broadened, courtesy of some multinational corporations operating in the Philippines. By 1993, the government would figure as a major player, mostly of the role discharged by the Department of Science and Technology. With the support from the Industrial Research Foundation, the Philnet project was launched, consisting of representatives of various universities.
  • Philippines were formally connected to the internet. Launching of the World Wide Web in the Philippines.

    Philippines were formally connected to the internet. Launching of the World Wide Web in the Philippines.
    Using the PLDT network center in Makati City, the Philippines was formally connected to the Internet and on the same day the free and open World Wide Web was launched in the country. Cheers and enthusiastic applause greeted this historic moment when Dr. John Brule announced 'We're in!" as the Philnet successfully linked up with the global Internet.