Apchurchill wwi u.s. 005tm

Major events of World War I

  • Four major causes of WWI

    • Militarism
    • Alliance system
    • Imperialism
    • Nationalism
  • Assassination of the Archduke

    The Assassination
    Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Este, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, is assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia. The assassin, Gavrilo Princip, was a member of a pan-Slavic movement called "Young Bosnia" that opposed the Austrian ambitions for domination on Balkans.
  • Austria-Hungary sends an ultimatum to Serbia

    Austro-Hungarian ultimatum to Serbia (English translation)
    The Austro-Hungarian Imperial Foreign Minister, Count Leopold Berchtold, sends an ultimatum to the Royal Government of Serbia. In the public life of Europe, that ultimatum was said to be "the most horrifying document that one free country ever sent to another free country". Some articles in the ultimatum seriously impacted Serbian sovereignity and independence.
  • Serbian government sends a reply to the ultimatum

    Serbian response to the ultimatum (English translation)
    Even though Austria-Hungary didn't have the right to demand such actions from the Serbian government, Serbian response to ultimatum was positive for all articles, except one. Serbia didn't agree to allow Austrian investigators to enter Serbia and investigate the "crime", since that was a direct impact on Serbian sovereignity and borders. That enabled Austria-Hungary to state that Serbian response didn't satisfy their expectations.
  • Austria-Hungary declares war to Serbia

    Austro-Hungarian declaration of war (original document)
    At 11:10 A.M. Count Leopold Berchtold sent the declaration of war via telegram from Vienna to Nikola Pašić, Serbian Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs. This declaration of war was received at Niš at 12:30 P.M.
  • The first offensive in World War I

    The first Austrian attack came over the river Drina (the border between Serbia and Bosnia). Serbian HQ expected an attack from the north, over the rivers Sava and Danube. Serbian Field Marshal (Voivode) Stepa Stepanović swiftly maneuvered his 2nd Army so that it would cut off the Austrian advance on the mountain of Cer.
  • Battle of the Frontiers

    This was the "collision" of military strategies: the French "Plan XVII" which was meant to retrieve territories lost in the Franco-Prussian War (1870), and the German "Schlieffen Plan" that had the object of quickly winning the campaign in France (the same strategy that Germany will later pull off in WWII, under the name "Blitzkrieg").
  • The Battle of Cer

    The Battle of Cer was fought for three days, from August 16th to August 19th. Serbian 2nd Army fought the Austrian 5th Army. The battle ended in Serbian victory, which was also the first Allied victory in World War I. As a result, Austrian forces had to pull back with severe casualties. The defeat crushed their plans for swift victory. Since they had to supply the Serbian front with more and more fresh troops, that kept their focus off the Russia and the rest of Entente.
  • The Battle of Kolubara

    This was the second great offensive on Serbia. Serbian army began retreating, step by step. It was in at that time that Gen. Živojin Mišić was made commander of the battered 1st Army. Instead retreating trench-after-trench, he pulled off a deep withdrawal to give the troops some much-needed rest and shorten the front line. The price for using that strategy was having to abandon the capital city of Belgrade. This strategy eventually helped win a great victory - the last one that Serbia will win.
  • RMS Lusitania torpedoed by a German U-boat

    RMS Lusitania
    British ocean liner, RMS Lusitania, was identified and torpedoed by a German U-20 U-boat. She went down 11 miles off the Old Head of Kinsale, Ireland. The sinking took away 128 American lives. It also contributed to negative public view of Germany, and American entry into World War I. After the sinking, President Wilson said that "America was too proud to fight" and managed to avoid conflict. Recent discoveries prove that Lusitania was transporting war supplies and ammo for the Entente.
  • Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare

  • Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Bulgaria finally crush Serbia

    This last offensive was different than the previous ones: This time, Serbia had to defend from two opposite sides. This ended up in a defeat. Serbian king, Serbian government, the remaining army and numerous civilians retreated and left Serbia, rather than surrendering their country to the enemy. Serbia was occupied by Austrians together with the people that didn't leave.
  • Germany suspends unrestricted submarine warfare

  • Tanks effectively used for the first time in combat history

    Mark I
    The British "Mark I" tank had entered service and was used in combat. Prime Minister Winston Churchill personally named it a "tank", partially to cover up the vehicle's true purpose while it was still in development. It was revolutionary - a tracked vehicle able to resist gunfire, provide cover, transport supplies, cross trenches and break through front lines.
  • Grigori Rasputin is assassinated

    Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin
    Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin, an Orthodox Christian monk, a mystic, a self-proclaimed psychic, and the personal physician to the Prince Alexei (who had haemophilia), the son of the Russian Emperor Nicholas II of the Romanov dynasty, was assassinated in Saint Petersburg. He was called the "Mad Monk" and was extremely influent on the Russian Imperial court.
  • The Zimmermann Note is forwarded to Mexico

    The Zimmermann Note (Encoded)
    Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann, sent the encoded Zimmerman telegram to Mexico. The note was intercepted and deciphered by the British. Germany offered Mexico some American states, among them Texas and Arizona, in return for their allegiance, and their "backstab" to U.S.
    Mexico refused the offer because it was not practical and possible, and partially because they didn't think that it was too smart to show hostility to U.S.
  • The Zimmermann Note is published in the U.S.

    The Zimmermann Note (Deciphered)
    The Zimmermann Note is openly published in the U.S. The contents of the telegram caused an enormous public outrage, which partially influenced the declaration of war by the U.S. to the German Empire and its allies.
  • British Indian Army occupies Baghdad

    General Maude's march into Baghdad
    After a two-year campaign, and a series of defeats, British Indian army conquered Baghdad from the Ottoman Empire.
  • Selective Service Act of 1917

    The famous "Uncle Sam" recruitment propaganda poster
    Selective Service Act was passed by the Congress, partially because of United States' involvement in World War I. It authorized the federal government to draft and assemble the army counting hundreds of thousands of men, that were shipped overseas. United States was sending 10.000 fresh troops per day to various Allied fronts.
  • First American troops land in France

  • United States declares war to Austria-Hungary

    The U.S. federal government declares war to Austria-Hungary, an ally of Germany.
  • Russia signs an armistice with Germany

    This was the first armistice that was signed between an Allied force and a Central Powers member.
  • President Wilson outlines his Fourteen Points plan

    President Wilson giving his speech
    President Woodrow Wilson gave the famous "Fourteen Points" speech in the Congress of the United States. The plan demonstrated the moral side of the World War I, and partially planned some of the territorial arrangement in Europe when the war ends.
  • Royal Air Force (RAF) is founded

    Royal Air Force
    Royal Air Force, the British aviation that still exists today, was founded by combining Royal Naval Air Service and Royal Flying Corps.
  • The Second Battle of the Marne

    The Second Battle of the Marne was noted for being the last German offensive on the Western Front before the are finally effectivelly counterattacked by France.
  • The Treaty of Versailles is signed

    Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles, the document that especially concerned Germany, is signed. The Peace Conference also opens in Paris.