PLATO – (428-348 BC)Plato ranks among the greatest philosophers of
the world, and is viewed by many scholars as the
most important Philosopher of Western civilization.
Plato held that moral values are objective in the sense
that they exist in a spirit-like realm beyond subjective
Plato’s main concern is to challenge the views most people have about goodness, for it is here that they
go disastrously wrong in trying to live happy lives
Socrates – (469-399BC)Socrates was an Athenian Philosopher whose questions and opinions clashed with the current course of Athenian politics and society. He was accused of corrupting the youth and disbelieving in the gods of the city and was sentenced to death by poison. One of the greatest paradoxes that helped his students explore was whether weakness of will – doing wrong when you genuinely knew what was right – truly existed.
Aristotle – (384-322 BC)In Arabic Philosophy, he was known simply as “The First
Teacher;” in the West, he was “The Philosopher.” Aristotle argued that virtues are good habits that we acquire, which regulate our
emotions. For example, in response to a natural feeling of fear, one should develop the virtue of courage, which allows a person to be firm when facing danger or fear. Aristotle further argued that most virtues fall at a mean between extreme character traits.