james madison

  • Birth of James Madison

    Birth of James Madison
    James Madison, born on March 16, 1751. James grew up in a small town of Orange County, Virginia.
  • fears from james

    fears from james
    James's most vivid childhood memories were of his fears of Indian attacks during the French and Indian War (1754-1763) and of the day his family moved from their little farmhouse to a large plantation mansion, Montpelier.
  • James Madison Early life

    James Madison Early life
    James Madison, oldest of 12 siblings, was born on March 16,1751. James grew up in Orange County, Virginia, with his family. In 1762, James was sent to a boarding school, ran by Donald Robertson. After going for 5 years of boarding school, James returned to his father's estate in Orange County, Virginia, mainly because his father was concerned about James's health issues, so he did private tutoring at home with his father.
  • Day of Graduation

    Day of Graduation
    In 1762, Madison was sent to a boarding school in King and Queen County, Virginia. He returned to his father's estate in Orange County, Virginia, five years later. His father had him stay home for private tutoring because he was concerned about Madison's health. After two years, Madison finally went to college in 1769, enrolling at the College of New Jersey — Princeton University. Madison studied Latin, Greek, science and philosophy. Graduating in 1771, he studies with the school's president.
  • After the Graduation

    After the Graduation
    Madison had contemplated either entering the clergy or practicing law after graduation, but instead remained at Princeton to study Hebrew and political philosophy under the college's president, John Witherspoon. He returned home to Montpelier in early 1772.
  • The contitution

    The contitution
    James Madison, America's fourth President (1809-1817), made a major contribution to the ratification of the Constitution by writing The Federalist Papers, along with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In later years, he was referred to as the “Father of the Constitution.”
  • Married

    Married
    Madison had contemplated either entering the clergy or practicing law after graduation, but instead remained at Princeton to study Hebrew and political philosophy under the college's president, John Witherspoon. He returned home to Montpelier in early 1772. Some people were surprised when James Madison married Dolley Payne Todd (1768-1849) on September 15, 1794. She was a spirited, charming, sociable 26-year-old widow and mother of a young son
  • Appointed Secretary of State

    in 1801, President Thomas Jefferson appointed Madison secretary of state, in which capacity he served until the end of Jefferson's administration in 1809. Elected President in 1808, Madison took office in 1809 and, after his reelection in 1812, served until 1817.
  • Elected President of U.S.

    Elected President of U.S.
    The 1808 United States presidential election was the 6th quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, November 4, to Wednesday, December 7, 1808. The Democratic-Republican candidate James Madison defeated Federalist candidate Charles Cotesworth Pinckney decisively. James Madison became the 4th president.
  • inaugurated as 4th president of U.S.

    inaugurated as 4th president of U.S.
    James Madison, America's fourth President (1809-1817), made a major contribution to the ratification of the Constitution by writing The Federalist Papers, along with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In later years, he was referred to as the “Father of the Constitution.”
  • President election

    President election
    Congress announces the results of the 1808 presidential election. Jefferson's secretary of state, Republican-Democrat James Madison, emerges victorious. Madison swamps Federalist opponent Charles C. Pinckney in electoral votes, 122 to 47. Pinckney carries only five states -- all of them in New England -- to Madison's twelve.
  • Cadore letter

    Cadore letter
    The Cadore letter notifies the American minister in France that the Decrees of Berlin and Milan will be repealed, effective November 1, if Britain revokes its Orders in Council or if the United States bars trade with Britain.
  • Occupation of West Florida

    Occupation of West Florida
    On October 27, 1810, President James Madison issued a proclamation that authorized the U.S. occupation of West Florida, which included land from the Perdido River west along the Gulf Coast to the Mississippi River. Although the President issued the proclamation in October, he did not inform Congress until his annual message in December.
  • Trade Wars

    Trade Wars
    Under the terms of Macon's Bill Number 2, Madison accepts a French offer to stop confiscation of American supplies and ships. In February 1811, he declares a halt in trade with Britain unless the Orders are repealed. Undeterred, Britain vows to continue to seize American ships until France ends its trade restrictions.
  • Presidential vetoes

    Presidential vetoes
    Madison vetoes two bills of Congress, one granting land in the Mississippi Territory to a Baptist congregation and the other incorporating an Episcopal church in Washington, D.C. Madison argues that both bills violate the non-establishment clause of the First Amendment. Later in the year, Congress will pass a Religious Freedom Act.
  • battle during presidentcy

    battle during presidentcy
    Shawnee leader Tecumseh, who hopes to assemble a confederation of tribes, General William Henry Harrison, the governor of the Indian Territory, carriers out a pre-emptive strike on Tecumseh. Harrison's militia is barely successful at the Battle of Tippecanoe, an engagement that serves as a prelude to the War of 1812. Tecumseh flees to Canada and British protection. On December 18, Madison proclaims the Battle of Tippecanoe a victory that will restore peace to the northwestern frontier.
  • Army Bill

    Army Bill
    Congress passes an Army bill to enlarge the second regular army to 25,000. The increase in manpower is far greater than Madison's request -- he had asked for a force of 10,000 -- but the bill provides less flexibility than Madison had requested. Amidst disagreements between Madison's administration and Congress, modifications are made to the legislation over the summer.
  • Drafting War Message

    Drafting War Message
    Madison sees the letter from Lord Castlereagh to British minister Foster confirming the continuance of the Orders in Council, and the President begins drafting his war message to Congress.
  • Final War Message

    Final War Message
    Madison delivers a message to Congress, justifying war against Britain and asking for a declaration of war. On June 4, the House of Representatives votes 79-49 for war against Britain. On June 16, Britain revokes its Orders in Council in an attempt to avoid war with the United States, but news of the British decision will reach the United States too late. On June 17, Senate votes 19-13 for a declaration of war.
  • Declaration of war

    Declaration of war
    James issues a declaration of war against Britain. In addition to concern over British actions with, some proponents of war also endorse territorial expansion into British Canada and Spanish Florida; they also end suspected British support of Indian attacks. Without the Bank of America and with an Army of only 6,700, the United States faces dire economic and military straits at the war's outset. The U.S. Navy, with a fleet of only sixteen vessels, delivers the nation's only victory.
  • Madisons re election

    Madisons re election
    Despite fierce competition and conflict within the Democrat-Republican party, Madison wins reelection, securing 128 electoral votes to Federalist DeWitt Clinton's 89. The electoral results indicate a divide within the nation.
  • Winchesters battle

    Winchesters battle
    Americans throughout the northwest are outraged by Winchester's battle and surrender at Frenchtown, and the Wyandotte murder of sixty Kentucky prisoners of war. The northwest ceases to play a role in war strategy.
  • Battle of put-in-bay

    Battle of put-in-bay
    In an impressive valor, Captain Oliver Perry wins control of Lake Erie in the Battle of Put-In-Bay. For four hours, Perry's flagship, the Lawrence, receives heavy attacks from two British warships, leaving most of his crew dead or wounded. Instead of surrendering, however, Perry rows to another ship and launches an attack on the British, finally accepting surrender of the entire British fleet. Perry sends word to General Harrison, stating, “We have met the enemy and they are ours.”
  • Battle of horseshoe

    Battle of horseshoe
    Under the command of Andrew Jackson, 2,000 troops defeat the Creek Confederation at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in the Tallapoosa River, eliminating the Confederation as an obstacle to American expansion toward the Gulf Coast. The engagement is one of the most significant American victories in the War of 1812, providing the United States with two-thirds of Creek land in the Treaty of Fort Jackson.
  • Napoleon's European empire collapses

    Napoleon's European empire collapses
    Napoleon's European empire collapses. Learning of Napoleon's defeat, Madison calls for an immediate repeal of the trade embargo with neutral nations, signaling a major reassessment of American war aims and strategy. He signs the bill into law on April 14. The British, meanwhile, can now turn their complete attention to war with the United States.
  • british burn washinghton during james's predidentcy

    british burn washinghton during james's predidentcy
    Events swung back against the Americans in the late spring on 1814 as the British went on the offensive. British ships raided American ports from Georgia to Maine. After they landed in the Chesapeake Bay, British troops began to march towards Washington, D.C. They encountered little resistance along the way. James Monroe, who served as Madison's secretary of state and of defense, led a scouting party to report on the British advance
  • Convention with Britain

    Convention with Britain
    Gallatin negotiates a commercial convention with Britain, further signifying the potential for the United States to play an important role in international trade and industrialization.
  • end of war of 1812

    end of war of 1812
    News arrives of the December 1814 Treaty of Ghent that ends the War of 1812. On February 15, Congress appropriates $500,000 for the reconstruction of federal buildings. The Senate ratifies the Treaty of Ghent on February 16.
  • After james was president

    After james was president
    Madison left the White House and retired to his Virginia plantation, Montpelier, where he spent his remaining years supervising his large plantation holdings and slaves.
  • After being president

    After being president
    The presidency of James Madison began on March 4, 1809, when James Madison was inaugurated as President of the United States, and ended on March 4, 1817. Madison, the fourth United States president, took office after defeating Federalist Charles Cotesworth Pinckney decisively in the 1808 presidential election.