International Organizations

By jc124
  • America Enters WWI

    America Enters WWI
    The country as a whole and the president - Woodrow Wilson in particular - was horrified by the slaughter that had taken place in what was meant to be a civilised part of the world. The only way to avoid a repetition of such a disaster, was to create an international body whose sole purpose was to maintain world peace and which would sort out international disputes as and when they occurred. This would be the task of the League of Nations.
  • Peace Negotiations begin

    Peace Negotiations begin
    Following WWI, U.S. President, Woodrow Wilson, insists that the signing of the Armistice should be based off his Fourteen Points - including the formation of the League of Nations.
  • Constitution of the League of Nations adopted

    Constitution of the League of Nations adopted
    The constitution of the League of Nations was adopted by the Paris Peace Conference in April, 1919. The League's headquarters were in Geneva.
  • Adverting Wars in the Border Disputes

    Adverting Wars in the Border Disputes
    The League of Nations also had success in adverting wars in the border disputes between Bulgaria-Greece (1925), Iraq-Turkey (1925-26) and Poland-Lithuania (1927). The League of Nations also had noticeable success in the areas of drugs control, refugee work and famine relief.
  • League of Nations Crisis: Japanese Invasion

    League of Nations Crisis: Japanese Invasion
    The League of Nations faced a fresh crisis in September 1931 when the Japanese Army occupied large areas of Manchuria, a province of China. The Chinese government appealed to the League of Nations under Article 11 of the Covenant. China also appealed to the United States as a signatory of the Kellogg Pact.
  • Plans for IMF/World Bank laid out

    Plans for IMF/World Bank laid out
    Financial representatives from the 44 allied nations devised institutions to alleviate the impediments to international financial growth that had arisen as a result of the war.
  • The UN Charter signed

    The UN Charter signed
    In 1944 representatives of China, the UK, the US and the USSR meeting at Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, DC, prepared a blueprint for an international organization. Towards the end of the war representatives of 50 countries gathered in San Francisco between April and June 1945 to hammer out the final text that would lay the foundations of international cooperation. This was the Charter of the United Nations, signed on 26 June by 50 countries.
  • United Nations is formed

    United Nations is formed
    The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the UN Charter had been ratified by a majority of the original 51 Member States.
    The purpose of the United Nations is to bring all nations of the world together to work for peace and development, based on the principles of justice, human dignity and the well-being of all people. It affords the opportunity for countries to balance global interdependence and national interests when addressing international problems.
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank officially established

    International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank officially established
    The original purpose of the World Bank was to grant loans to rebuild Europe after the war. Both institutions worked in conjunction with the Marshall Plan for the redevelopment and economic stabilization of Europe.
  • Responsibilities handed over to the United Nations

    Responsibilities handed over to the United Nations
    As the Second World War unfolded, it became clear that the League had failed in its chief aim of keeping the peace. The League had no military power of its own. It depended on its members' contributions; and its members were not willing to use sanctions, economic or military.Moral authority was insufficient.
    The League of Nations did not meet during the Second World War. In 1946 the responsibilities of the League of Nations was handed over to the United Nations.
  • GATT sees exceptional growth in world trade

    GATT sees exceptional growth in world trade
    GATT was formed in 1947 and signed into international law on January 1, 1948. Merchandise exports grew on average by 6% annually. Total trade in 2000 was 22-times the level of 1950. GATT and the WTO have helped to create a strong and prosperous trading system contributing to unprecedented growth.
  • World Bank neglects to help low-income families

    World Bank neglects to help low-income families
    According to the World Bank's own evaluation process, of 82 agricultural projects, 45% were considered unsatisfactory. In a 1990 evaluation report, it was found that projects in the Northeast of Brazil benefited 100,000 owner companies while excluding most of the targeted 3 million low-income families from credit and agricultural services, as well as from the design of projects.
  • NGOs voice their concerns

    NGOs voice their concerns
    Since the Earth Summit, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, UN conferences have turned into forums in which non-governmental organizations (NGOs) can voice their concerns alongside those of governements. With the moral weight of international conferences and the pressures of media and NGOs, Member States are more likely to endorse the agreements and put them into effect.
  • IMF neglects the environment

    IMF neglects the environment
    More than half of the World Bank's $24 billion annual lending supports projects in environmentally sensitive areas. According to the campaign, the record of lending in these areas has been characterized by "needless environmental destruction and missed opportunities for economically more efficient and environmentally more friendly alternatives." As an example, between 1986 and 1993, 15% of World Bank loans were for projects (such as dams) which forcibly displaced 2 million people.
  • 50 Years is Enough

    50 Years is Enough
    Approximately 400 non-governmental organizations worldwide have mounted a campaign which calls for major restructuring and reevaluation of the Bretton Woods institutions' policies. As 1994 is the 50th anniversary of the Bretton Woods conference where the IMF and World Bank were formed, the campaign is called "50 Years is Enough."
  • World Trade Organization (WTO) established

    World Trade Organization (WTO)  established
    WTO becomes the legal successor of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) which had been developed in WWII. The WTO’s overriding objective is to help trade flow smoothly, freely, fairly and predictably.
    Administering trade agreements
    Acting as a forum for trade negotiations
    Settling trade disputes
    Reviewing national trade policies
    Assisting developing countries in trade policy issues, through technical assistance and training programmes
    Cooperating with other international organizations
  • GATT becomes WTO’s umbrella agreement for trade in goods

    GATT becomes WTO’s umbrella agreement for trade in goods
    From 1947 to 1994, GATT was the forum for negotiating lower customs duty rates and other trade barriers; the text of the General Agreement spelt out important rules, particularly non-discrimination.
  • Criticisms of the UN cause reforms to be made

    Criticisms of the UN cause reforms to be made
    When Secretary General Annan took office in 1997, he initiated a reform program that reflected popular demands from member states to change the permanent membership of the Security Council, construct a more transparent, accountable and efficient bureaucracy, and bring about a more democratic U.N.
  • WTO Meeting results in "integrated framework"

    WTO Meeting results in "integrated framework"
    In 1997, a high-level meeting on trade initiatives and technical assistance for least-developed countries resulted in an “integrated framework” involving six intergovernmental agencies, to help least-developed countries increase their ability to trade, and some additional preferential market access agreements.
  • WTO Ministerial Conference in Doha

    WTO Ministerial Conference in Doha
    In 2000, new talks started on agriculture and services. These have now been incorporated into a broader agenda launched at the fourth WTO Ministerial Conference in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001.