Indigenous Australian History

  • Period: to

    Early 20th Century History

  • Constituition of Australia

    Constituition of Australia
    Thoe constituition from the commonwealth of Australia states "in reckoning the numbers of people… Aboriginal natives shall not be counted". It also states that the Commonwealth would legislate for any race except Aboriginal people. This meant that Aboriginal people are excluded from the vote, pensions, employment in post offices, enlistment in armed forces and maternity allowance.
  • Queesland Aborignal Protection Act

    Queesland Aborignal Protection Act
    Torres Strait Islanders become subject to the Queensland Aboriginal Protection Act.
  • Western Australia Aboriginies Act

    Western Australia Aboriginies Act
    This is when reserves are established, with a local protector appointed and rules governing Aboriginal employment are laid down.
  • Old Age Pensioner Act

    Old Age Pensioner Act
    The Invalid and Old Age Pensioner Act provides social security for the whites but not for Aboriginal and Indigenous people.
  • NSW Aborigines Protection Act

     NSW Aborigines Protection Act
    Aboriginal schools are established in NSW. The exclusion of Aboriginal children from public schools are followed requests by the white community. The Act also made it illegal for ‘half-castes’ to live on reserves. Also, during this year, the first Aboriginal person to play First Grade Rugby League was George Green who played for the Eastern Suburbs.
  • South Australian Aborigines Act

    South Australian Aborigines Act
    The South Australian Aborigines Act makes the Chief Protector the legal guardian of every Aboriginal and ‘half-caste’ child under 21 years old. The Chief Protector also has control of where the child lives.
  • Maternity Allowance

    Maternity Allowance
    Maternity allowance is introduced but does not include Aboriginal people.
  • Beginning of WW1

    Beginning of WW1
    Approximately 400 to 500 Aboriginal children continue to be removed from their families during the period 1914 to 1918, including children whose fathers are overseas at war.
  • No Protection

    No Protection
    The NSW Aborigines Protection Board is given powers to remove Aboriginal children without a court hearing.
  • Decrease within the Population

    Decrease within the Population
    During this time, the Aboriginal population is estimated to be at its lowest at 60,000 - 70,000. It is widely believed to be a ‘dying race’. Most Australians have no contact with Aboriginal people due to segregation and social conventions.
  • Still Banned

    Still Banned
    At 1927, Aboriginal people are denied maternity allowance and old age pension.
    The Aboriginal people are still banned from central Perth until 1948.
  • Conniston Massacre

    Conniston Massacre
    Conniston Massacre in the Northern Territory. Europeans shoot 32 Aboriginal people after a European dingo trapper and a station owner are attacked by them.
  • Aboriginies Act

    Aboriginies Act
    Under the Aborigines Act, Aboriginal people can apply to ‘cease being Aboriginal’ and have access to the same rights as ‘whites’.
  • Creation of the Assimilation Policy

    Creation of the Assimilation Policy
    It basically stated that Aboriginal people of mixed descent are to be assimilated into white society whether they want to be or not, those not living tribally are to be educated and all others are to stay on reserves.
  • Day of Mourning

    Day of Mourning
    During this day, an Aboriginal conference is held in Sydney. These are the first of many Aboriginal protests against inequality, injustice, dispossession of land and protectionist policies.
  • Cummeragunja Walk-Off

    Cummeragunja Walk-Off
    On this day, over 150 Aboriginal people pack-up and leave Cummeragunja Aboriginal Station in protest at the cruel treatment and exploitation of residents by the management. They walk across the border from New South Wales into Victoria in contravention of the rules of the New South Wales Protection Board.
  • WAP

    During this year, the white Australia policy succeeds with 99% of Australia's 7 million being white.
  • Exemption Certificate

    Exemption Certificate
    An Exemption Certificate is introduced, exempting certain Aboriginal people from restrictive legislation and entitling them to vote, drink alcohol and move freely but prohibiting them from consorting with others who are not exempt.
  • Commonwealth Citizenship

    Commonwealth Citizenship
    The Commonwealth Citizenship and Nationality Act for the first time makes all Australians, including all Aboriginal people, Australian citizens. But at state level they still suffer legal discrimination.
  • First Formal Schooling

    First Formal Schooling
    The first formal schooling for Aboriginal children in the Northern Territory was provided during the 1950's. Lack of facilities is rationalised by the claim that children “beyond the age of 10 couldn’t keep up with white children anyway”.
  • Federal Council

    Federal Council
    During this year, the first Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines is established. The idea was to form a federal council, uniting existing state bodies to press for greater Commonwealth involvement in Aboriginal affairs and to work for the removal of discriminatory state legislation.
  • Margret Williams

    Margret Williams
    Margaret Williams ibecomes the first Aboriginal to graduate from university graduate with a diploma in physical education
  • Native Welfare Confrence

    Native Welfare Confrence
    At the Native welfare confrence, the ministers agree to assist the assimilation of Aboriginal people. These include the removal of discriminatory legislation and restrictive practices, the incorporation of Aboriginal people into the economy and the education of non-Aboriginal Australians about Aboriginal culture and history.
    After the conference, all states and territories amend their legislation.
  • Commonwealth Electoral Act

    Commonwealth Electoral Act
    The Commonwealth Electoral Act was amended to give all Aboriginal people the extending the right to vote in Western Australia, Queensland and the Northern Territory.
    Aboriginal people in Queensland, Western Australia and the people in the Northern Territory were given the right to vote in federal elections. Aboriginal people were not made to register but once they had, voting is compulsory for them, as it is for every Australian.
  • Intergration Policy

    Intergration Policy
    Integration policy is introduced, supposedly to give Aboriginal people more control over their lives and society.
    This policy replaced the Assimilation policy due to the failure because it was never accepted into the community.
  • 67' Refferendum

    67' Refferendum
    The 1967 Referendum proposed to include Aboriginal people in the census.
    The 1967 Referendum also proposed to allow the Commonwealth government to make laws for Aboriginal people.
  • Self-Determination Policy

    Self-Determination Policy
    This is when the Whitlam Government abolishes White Australia Policy and introduces a policy of self-determination. This policy means that they then had the right to cultural and linguistic maintenance and management of natural resources on Aboriginal land.
    Also, the ‘Aboriginal Tent Embassy’ is pitched outside Parliament House in Canberra, demonstrating for land rights.
  • Racial Discrimination Act

    Racial Discrimination Act
    The Racial Discrimination Act is passed in the Federal Parliament. The Australian Senate unanimously endorses a resolution. This is put up by Senator Neville Bonner acknowledging prior ownership of this country and seeking compensation for their dispossesion.
  • Galarrwuy Yunupingu

    Galarrwuy Yunupingu
    Galarrwuy Yunupingu becomes one of the many to recieve an Australian of the Year Award. He was a leader of the Yolngu tribe in the Northern Terrirory.
  • ‘Survival Day’

     ‘Survival Day’
    On this day, tens of thousands of Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander people march through the streets of Sydney on Australia Day to celebrate their survival during the previous 200 years, while non-indigineous Australia commerates the bicentenary of their immigration. Aboriginal people rename the day to ‘Survival Day’.

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) is established as main Commonwealth agency in Indigenous affairs.
  • Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation

    Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation
    The Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation is set up, funded by the federal government. The Parliament noted that there had not been a formal process of reconciliation to date, “and that it was most desirable that there be such a reconciliation” by 2001.
  • Mabo vs QLD

    Mabo vs QLD
    It decides that Native Title exists over particular kinds of lands - unalienated Crown Lands, national parks and reserves - and that Australia was never terra nullius or empty land.
  • Native Title Act

    Native Title Act
    Native Title Act 1993 becomes a law.
    The Native Title Tribunal is established to hear land claims. Indigenous Land Fund is established as part of federal government’s response to the Mabo decision.
  • The Wik People

    The Wik People
    The Wik Peoples make a claim for native title in the Federal Court of Australia for land on the Cape York Peninsula in Queensland. Native Title Act does not pass through Parliament until December 1993.
  • First Gold Medal

    First Gold Medal
    Nova Peris-Kneebone becomes the first Aboriginal person to win a gold medal.
  • Reconciliation Policy

    Reconciliation Policy
    Prime Minister of the time, John Howard, states "In facing the realities of the past, we must not join those who would portray Australia's history since 1788 as little more than a isgraceful record of imperialism. Such an approach will be repudiated by the overwhelming majority of Australians who are proud of what this country has achieved although inevitably acknowledging the blemishes in its past history".
  • Sorry Books Campaign

    Sorry Books Campaign
    This campaign was mainly about how Australians can sign in response to the federal government’s refusal to make a formal apology to the Stolen Generations.
  • ATSIC Ammendment Act

    ATSIC Ammendment Act
    The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) is dismantled by the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission Amendment Act 2005 and was alsp replaced by a Commonwealth government-appointed advisory board.
  • 40th Anniversary

    40th Anniversary
    The Aboriginal Tent Embassy in Canberra celebrates its 40th anniversary.
    An incident where the Prime Minister was disturbed by around 50 protesters outside a restaurant makes security guards drag her hurriedly into a car.
  • Recognition Bill

    Recognition Bill
    This is when the Australian Parliament passes with bi-partisan (meaning both parties) support the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples Recognition Bill 2012 which recognises the unique and special place of Aboriginal people and sets out a review process to progress the route to a referendum.