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HIGE Assessment Term 1 (British Colonisation)

  • The Industrial Revolution Started.

    The Industrial Revolution Started.
    The Industrial Revolution was a revolution that involved lots of machines.
  • Captain Cook explored Australia.

    Captain Cook explored Australia.
    Captain Cook got told to explore Southern land.
  • The First Fleet left England.

    The First Fleet left England.
    This was the day when the First Fleet left to go to Australia. The Groups of people that came on this ship were the convicts and the soldiers. Some of the reasons why the British sent the First Fleet are because they wanted land and they needed somewhere to put all the convicts.
  • The First Fleet landed in Australia.

    The First Fleet landed in Australia.
    This is the day when the first Fleet landed on Australia and put up the British Flag. This is known as Australia Day.
  • The first Conflict between Aboriginals and the British.

  • The first Aboriginal captured by Europeans (Arabanoo).

  • The Smallpox disease.

  • 2 more Aboriginal men were captured.

    The 2 were Bennolong and Colebee. Colebee escapes but Bennolong stays for 5 months with Governer Phillip.
  • The Hawkesbury and Nepean Wars between Aboriginal people and white invaders start in NSW.

    It was led by Pemulwuy and his son Tedbury, Aboriginal people raid stations or assault sheep and cattle because the growing number of colonists occupied more and more land. Many times they used firesticks to set the bush on fire, destroy buildings, and burn crops. The guerrillia-like wars continue until 1816.
  • Orphan boy Bon-del is the first Aboriginal person to go to sea, sailing aboard the brig Supply, bound for Norfolk Island.

    He sailed aboard the brig bound for Norfolk island.
  • Bennelong and a boy named Yemmerrawanie are taken to England by Phillip.

    They perform the first Aboriginal song to be heard in Europe. Bennelong meets George III. Yemmarrawanie dies in England. In 1795 Bennelong returns to Australia.
  • Gnung-a Gnung-a Murremurgan (also known as Collins) crosses the Pacific to Nootka Sound (Vancouver), the Californian coast and Hawaii.

  • The Free Settlers arrived in Australia.

    Some of the reasons the free settlers came to Australia are pollution, robbery, land, jobs, convict labourer, free charge, the government wanted them to, the were less rules and there might be family over there.
  • The Richmond Hill battle is considered to be the first recorded battle between Aboriginal people defending their country against the British.

  • Aboriginal man Tom Rowley sails to Calcutta, Madras and New Ireland. He returns in 1796 to Australia.

  • After being shot seriously twice, and surviving both times, Pemulwuy is considered unable to be killed by bullets.

  • Beginning of a six-year period of resistance to white settlement by Aboriginal people in the Hawkesbury and Parramatta areas. Known as the ‘Black Wars’.

  • Governor King orders Aboriginal people gathering around Parramatta, Georges River and Prospect Hill “to be driven back from the settler’s habitation by firing at them”.

  • Pemulwuy is shot by two settlers. Tedbury continues the resistance.

  • Bungaree (Bungary) is the first Aboriginal person to circumnavigate Australia as a member of Matthew Flinders’ historic journey of exploration (1802-03).

  • French Captain Nicholas Baudin and the English navigator Matthew Flinders meet at the South Australian border near Victor Harbor. Baudin had orders to study Aboriginal people for the new science of anthropology just founded in Paris.

  • Tasmania is occupied by white people. The Black Wars of Tasmania last until 1830 and claim the lives of 600 Aboriginal people and more than 200 white settlers.

  • Most of the Cumberland Plain west of Sydney is occupied by colonists. The Eora people are being dispossessed of their land.

  • William Moree, a lieutenant of the New South Wales Rum Corps, orders to open fire at Risdon Cove, Tasmania, on a group of about 300 Aboriginal people who are probably hunting kangaroos. Between 30 and 60 Aboriginal people are killed.

  • Aboriginal people begin to be moved onto mission stations where they can be taught European beliefs and used as cheap labour. Settlers try to control growth of the Aboriginal population with a policy of absorption.

  • Bennelong dies.

  • Colonists, assisted by Aboriginal people, cross the Blue Mountains and create new hostilities as they pass through Aboriginal lands.

  • Governor Macquarie opens a school for Aboriginal children at Parramatta called the ‘Native Institution’ to “civilise, educate and foster habits of industry and decency in the Aborigines”.

    The local Aboriginal people (Koori) remove their children from the school after they realise that its aim is to distance the children from their families and communities. The school closes in 1820.
  • Governor Macquarie founds the Native Institute as a school for Aboriginal children of both genders.

  • Attacks on farms by Aboriginal people on the edge of Sydney.

    Macquarie sends a punitive party to arrest ‘offenders’.They attack a camp near Appin at night and 14 Aboriginal people are killed including Carnabyagal.
  • There are a number of large scale killings as conflict over dispossession of land and erosion of hunting rights continues.

  • Windradyne leads Wiradjuri resistance that will last for two years along the Murray River.

  • Martial law is proclaimed in the Bathurst area when seven Europeans are killed by Aboriginal people led by Aboriginal man Windradyne, and conflict with them is seen as a serious threat.

    Soldiers, mounted police, settlers and stockmen frequently attack Aboriginal people. As many as 100 are killed in a massacre at Bathurst. Martial law stops in December. This conflict became known as the “Bathurst War”.
  • A colony is set up in Perth, on the south-west coast of Australia.

  • Governor Arthur tries unsuccessfully to drive all the remaining Aboriginal people in eastern Australia on to the Tasman Peninsula. 2,200 men form a ‘Black Line’.

    It cost 5,000 pounds (equivalent to about AUD 1.2 million in 2008) and only two Aboriginal people are caught - an old man and a young boy.
  • Yagan leads Nyoongar resistance in Western Australia for three years.

  • Yagan is killed.

    Yagan's head is cut off and pickled. It is then sent to England as a museum curiosity.
  • Governor Stirling leads a party of men to a site near present day Pinjarra, on the Swan River and attacks 80 Aboriginal people.

    One of Stirling’s men dies and many Aboriginal people are killed. Official reports put their number at 14 but Aboriginal accounts suggest a whole clan was wiped out in the attack. This became known as the ‘Battle of Pinjarra’. It was an attempt to punish Aboriginal people south of Perth, after conflict with settlers caused the death of a settler in April.
  • John Batman attempts to make a ‘treaty’ with Aboriginal people for Port Phillip Bay, near present day Melbourne by ‘buying’ 243,000 hectares with 20 pairs of blankets, 30 tomahawks, various other articles and a yearly tribute.

    Governor Bourke does not recognise the ‘treaty’ and the purchase is voided. This is the only time colonists attempt to sign a treaty for land with Aboriginal owners.
  • King William IV recognises the continued rights to land for Aboriginal people in South Australia’s founding document, the Letters Patent.

  • The colony of South Australia is founded. A “Protector” of Aboriginal people is appointed but the Kaurna people, near Adelaide, are unable to maintain life as a group because of the expanding settlement and loss of their land.

  • The policy of protection for Aboriginal people marks the beginning of involvement of the Catholic Church in missionary work and the establishment of schools for Aboriginal children.

  • A massacre of Aboriginal people occurs at Gravesend, New South Wales with more than 200 killed.

  • A British Select Committee examines the treatment of Indigenous people in all British colonies.

    Australian colonies are particularly criticised. The committee affirms the ‘plain and sacred right’ of Aboriginal peoples to land and recommends that ‘Protectors of Aborigines’ be appointed.
  • The policy of protection for Aboriginal people marks the beginning of involvement of the Catholic Church in missionary work and the establishment of schools for Aboriginal children.

  • An entire community of Aboriginal people perishes in a massacre at Long Lagoon, a newly settled station in inland Queensland.

  • At Vinegar Hill, a site on ‘Slaughterhouse Creek’, 60 - 70 Aboriginal people are reported killed. The only European casualty is a corporal, speared in the leg.

  • Reports of poisoning of Aboriginal people on ‘Tarrone’ near Port Fairy, West Melbourne and ‘Kilcoy’ north-west Moreton Bay.

  • A British Select Committee examines the treatment of Indigenous people in all British colonies.

    Australian colonies are particularly criticised. The committee affirms the ‘plain and sacred right’ of Aboriginal peoples to land and recommends that ‘Protectors of Aborigines’ be appointed.
  • The ‘Myall Creek Massacre’ occurs. 12 heavily armed colonists rounded up and brutally kill 28 Aboriginal people from a group of 40 or 50 people gathered at Henry Dangar’s Station, at Myall Creek near Inverell (NSW).

  • 30 Aboriginal people massacred at Rufus River in New South Wales, close to the boundaries with Victoria and South Australia.

  • Governor Bourke of NSW orders the establishment of the Native Police in the Port Phillip district (now Victoria). Aboriginal troopers, trained to track and disperse groups of Aboriginal people, are part of the force. It is disbanded in 1853.

  • Native Police forces operates punitive expeditions and attacks and kills many Aboriginal people on stations. The force is led by European officers.

  • After Aboriginal landowners of the Jagera people block key supply routes to the Darling Downs white settlers attack them in the Battle of One Tree Hill in the Lockyer Valley. The Jagera are led by Aboriginal warrior Multuggerah.

  • About 50 remaining Aboriginal people from the Sydney and Botany Bay peoples are living at a camp on Botany Heads.

  • The Board of National Education, established in NSW, states “It is impractical to provide any form of education for the children of blacks”.

  • Land Commissioner McDonald reported widespread food shortages among Aboriginal people in the Murray District after their displacement by pastoralists who took their land for sheep stations.