Imperialism in Africa

  • The Race for Africa

    The Race for Africa
    In the late 1800s, a “scramble for Africa” occurred. This was a time during which European countries were trying to take as much of Africa as they could for themselves.
  • Great Trek of the Boers

    Great Trek of the Boers
    During the Napoleonic wars, the British established themselves in South Africa by taking control of Cape Town, which was originally founded by the Dutch. After the wars, the British encouraged settlers to come to what they called the Cape Colony. British policies disgusted the Boers, or Afrikaners, as the descendants of the Dutch colonists were called, and led them in 1835 to migrate north on the Great Trek to the region between the Orange and Vaal rivers and north of the Vaal River.
  • Slave Trade in Africa Becomes Popular

    Slave Trade in Africa Becomes Popular
    European trade with Africa becomes increasingly popular.
  • Sepoy Rebellion

    Sepoy Rebellion
    In the 1850's, Britian controlled most of India. They treated the Indians as servants. When Sepoys, (Indian Soldiers), learned that cartridges for their rifles that were given to them by the British were greased with pork and beef fat, they refused to use them. As a result, the British imprisoned the Sepoys. The Indian people were outraged, and rebelled against the British, resulting in the Sepoy Rebellion.
  • The Discovery of Diamonds

    The Discovery of Diamonds
    Up until the discovery of diamonds in 1857, South Africa had been exclusively agricultural and of little importance. South Africa's economy was completely dependant on the mining industry.
  • Africa Was Under Full Control

    Africa Was Under Full Control
    By 1870, nearly 10% of Africa was under European control. By the 1900s, 90% of Africa was controlled by the Europeans.
  • Leopold II

    Leopold II
    Leopold II for Belgium begins efforts to build a colony in Africa along the Congo River. He is connected to the Congo because he acquired that region as a personal holding (as opposed to a colony of the country of Belgium) and exploited it.
  • British Seizure of Transvaal

    British Seizure of Transvaal
    Hostilities between the British and the Boers continued, even after the Boers migrated north to the region between the Orange and Vaal rivers and north of the Vaal River (the Transvaal). In 1877, the British governor of the Cape Colony seized the Transvaal, but a Boer revolt led the British government to recognise Transvaal as the independent South African Republic.
  • Berlin Conference

    Berlin Conference
    So many European countries were trying to take over Africa that there was a rising concern that it would result in conflict. To prevent European war, 14 European countries gathered at Berlin and split Africa up into areas which they could control without African consent.
  • Leopold's Rule

    Leopold's Rule
    During his rule, Leopold II exploited the Africans, treating them horribly in order to achieve maximum profit. Over 10 million Congo people died within a 23 year period due to explotation and disease as a result of Leopold's rule.
  • Opening the Suez Canal

    Opening the Suez Canal
    The Suez Canal was opened by the French in 1896.
  • Boer War

    Boer War
    The Boer war was fought between the British and the Boers, Dutch settlers from Africa. When diamonds and gold were discovered there, the British wanted control over the land that the Boers had already settled on. This was the first "modern" war, however, Britian won in 1910.
  • Second Boer War

    Second Boer War
    The Boers declared war and attacked the British first at Natal and Cape Colony. This introduced Guerilla Warfare and the "Scorched Earth" policy. The British burned Boer farms, homes, and crops, poisoned wells, and took citizens to concentration, or refugee, camps with awful conditions.
  • Treaty of Vereeniging

    Treaty of Vereeniging
    The Treaty of Vereeniging was signed in 1902 which ended the Boer Wars.
  • Lots of Gold

    Lots of Gold
    By 1907, British colonies in South Africa had produced 1/3 of the world's gold production.
  • South Africa Act of 1909

    South Africa Act of 1909
    South Africa act of 1909 declared Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, and Orange Free State as the Union of South Africa. Union of South Africa put under British dominion with home rule for the Boers.
  • Union of South Africa

    Union of South Africa
    The Union of South Africa was created and became a fully self-governing dominion within the British Empire.
  • Gold Export

    Gold Export
    47.6% of of the total export of Africa was produced by the Union of Africa.