Canadian passport

Immigration to Canada between 1776 and 1914

  • Loyalist Refugees

    Loyalist Refugees
    Escaping America, while remaining loyal to Britain, a group of ‘Loyalists’ immigrated from America. During this time 35,000 Loyalists following the American Revolution came north, to what is now, Nova Scotia.
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    During the French revolution many of the French people immigrated to Quebec.
  • Constitutional Act

    Constitutional Act
    The Constitutional Act divided Quebec into Lower and Upper Canada. The British decided to divide Quebec because they wanted to accommodate the many English settlers that came from the American Revolution seeking refuge.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    The military conflict between America and the British Empire saw many people immigrate. Many black slaves tried to escape America, because the British had anti-slave sentiments. Some of the slaves settled in Nova Scotia. Many loyalists also settled in Canada during the war.
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    Great Migration of Canada

    Over 800 000 immigrants came to Canada in this timepan, making this known as the "Great Migration".
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    Immigrants from the Underground Railroad

    1840-1860 is the timespan of black immigrants into Canada through what was called an ‘Underground Railroad’. It was a path coloured men/women took to immigrate into Canada in search of freedom. Harriet Tubman was considered the leader of the black slaves searching for liberty in Canada. Though searching for such freedom, coloured men and women weren’t treated as well as anticipated. To the point where Canadians wished for an end to black immigration.
  • Irish Migrators

    Irish Migrators
    Irish people immigrated from Ireland to Canada because the Potato Famine wiped out around 1 million Irish people. The survivors of the famine and disease were forced to immigrate during this time.
  • Grosse-Isle Quarantine

    Grosse-Isle Quarantine
    Before the famished immigrants from Ireland could officially come to Canada, they made a stop at Grosse-Isle quarantine. The purpose of this was to inspect the living for disease and get rid the deceased/dying people before allowing the immigrants onto the shores of Canada.
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    Yukon Gold Rush

    Between 1848 and 1900 there was a series of Gold Rushes in North America that impacted technology and the lives of many Americans. These gold rushes occurred in regions that had harsh climates and difficult terrain. As there had been no previous event like the gold rush, prospective miners were inexperienced. They gambled and spent their life savings on equipment and technology for their expedition. This brought new immigrants to the Yukon.
  • Louis Riel Establishment

    Louis Riel Establishment
    Louis Riel and Metis are located to, and occupied lower Fort Gary.
  • Gold Mountain

    Gold Mountain
    Gold Mountain resided in British Columbia. Thousands of poor Chinese men came here with visions of a superior life away from China. Others came as workers who were required to construct the Canadian Pacific Railway for minimal wages.
  • Open Door Policy

    Open Door Policy
    Settlements in Canada at this time were in need of expansion. The Open Door Policy was created to attract immigrant settlers, primarily from Britain, US, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. Any other immigrants from other areas at this time were discouraged. This lasted until the early 1900s.
  • European Immigration

    European Immigration
    Europeans during this time were deprived of sufficient land and had high taxes to be paid. So coming to Canada, a place whose prairies greatly resembled their former land, was a common choice. Canada had a high availability of farm land and the increasing value of wheat attracted many European farmers.
  • Ukrainian Migration

    Ukrainian Migration
    The migration of 170,000 Ukrainians began, mainly to flee oppression from areas under Austro-Hungarian rule, marking the first wave of Ukrainians seeking refuge in Canada.
  • ‘Last, Best West’ Campaign

    ‘Last, Best West’ Campaign
    Led by Wilfrid Laurier, this campaign (with similar intentions to the Open Door Poilcy) attracted immigrants into Canada. If these settlers were of 'acceptable' descent, they could claim up to 160 acres of free land in the West.
  • Chinese Discrimination

    Chinese Discrimination
    Chinese immigrants were treated poorly and rudely judged by Canadians. Many Canadians wished to stop Chinese immigration because they were deemed to be of no use after constructing the railway.
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    Western American Immigrants

    Between 1901 and 1914, over 750,000 immigrants entered Canada from the United States. While many were returning Canadians, about one–third were newcomers of Europe extraction - Germans, Hungarians, Norwegians, Swedes, and Icelanders - who had originally settled in the American West.
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    Other Immigrants

    Between 1902 and 1914, of the approximately 2.85 million newcomers who arrived on Canadian soil, 1.18 million had English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh or other British roots.
  • Continuous Passage Act

    Continuous Passage Act
    This particular act specified that Indians would have to come to Canada by means of the direct passage from India. These terms, to the average Indian, were unreasonable to the point of minimal consideration and evident discrimination on Canadas part.