Hitler Elected Chancellor of GermanyHitlerVideo On the evening of Jan. 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler, the newly appointed Chancellor of Germany, stood in a government building at an open window watching a torchlight parade of 25,000 Nazi troops march through the streets of Berlin. Thousands of Germans cheered as they marched by, and Hitler was giddy with delight. "No power on Earth will get me out of here alive," someone heard him say.
First Concentration openedFirst Concentration Camp
Established in March 1933, the Dachau concentration camp was the first regular concentration camp established by the Nazis in Germany. The camp was located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory near the medieval town of Dachau, about 10 miles northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria, which is located in southern Germany.
Jewish Shops BoycottedJewish BoycotteGermans were told not to buy from Jewish shops
or businesses. On April 1, 1933, a week after Hitler
became dictator of Germany, he ordered a boycott of
Jewish shops, banks, offices and department stores. But
the boycott was mostly ignored by German shoppers
and was called off after three days. However, the
unsuccessful boycott was followed by a rapid series of
laws which robbed the Jews of many rights.
Hitlers NewPowersHitlers New PowerOnce Hindenburg died, and the title of president was
abolished. Hitler’s title became Fuehrer and Reich
Chancellor. Not surprisingly, he used the initial fouryear
“temporary” grant of emergency powers that had
been given to him by the Enabling Act to consolidate his
omnipotent control over the entire country.
Numberg LawsNumberg Laws
A conference of ministers was held to discuss the economic effects of Party actions against Jews. Dr. Schacht, the Economics Minister, criticized arbitrary behavior by Party members as this inhibited his policy of rebuilding Germany's economy. It made no economic sense since Jews had certain entrepreneurial skills that could be usefully employed to further his policies. Schacht made no moral condemnation of Jewish policy and advocated the passing of legislation to clarify the situation.
Munich Synagogue DestroyedSynagogue DestroyedThe Jewish synagogue in Munich was destroyed.
The demolition began on June 9; only a few days later the
liberal synagogue in the Herzog-Max-Straße, erected in 1887,
was completely destroyed. With this event, the last chapter of
the Nazi persecution began: only a few months later in the
Pogrom night, both smaller orthodox Munich synagogues,
Ohel Jacob and Reichenbachstraße were destroyed, and
shortly thereafter, the deportations to the death camps and
the murder of most Munich Jews began.
Jewish Passports Stamped With J
KristallnachtKristallnachtOn this day in 1938, in an event that would foreshadow
the Holocaust, German Nazis launch a campaign of terror
against Jewish people and their homes and businesses
in Germany and Austria. The violence, which continued
through November 10 and was later dubbed "Kristallnacht,"
or "Night of Broken Glass,"
Final SolutionFinal Solution
The Nazis frequently used euphemistic language to disguise the true nature of their crimes. They used the term “Final Solution” to refer to their plan to annihilate the Jewish people. It is not known when the leaders of Nazi Germany definitively decided to implement the "Final Solution." The genocide, or mass destruction, of the Jews was the culmination of a decade of increasingly severe discriminatory measures.
Gypsies Sent to CampsGypsies Sent to CampsIn the first years after they came to power, the Nazis
introduced a range of anti-Gypsy restrictions, including
an obligation for them to register and submit to “racial
examination”; later, they introduced limitations on freedom of
movement. A commentary on the German race laws, issued
in Nuremberg in September 1935, stated that the Gypsies
were just as racially alien as the Jews, and therefore could
not enjoy the rights of citizens of the Reich.
Warsaw Ghetto UprisingWarsaw Ghetto UprisingBetween July 22 and September 12, 1942, the German authorities deported or murdered around 300,000 Jews in the Warsaw ghetto. SS and police units deported 265,000 Jews to the Treblinka killing center and 11,580 to forced-labor camps. The Germans and their auxiliaries murdered more than 10,000 Jews in the Warsaw ghetto during the deportation operations. The German authorities granted only 35,000 Jews permission to remain in the ghetto, while more than 20,000 Jews remained in the ghetto in hiding.
Death Camps and Concentration Camps ClosedCamps ClosedBy late 1944 and early 1945, the Nazi military force was
collapsing, and Nazi troops were forced to retreat on all
fronts. Although it was clear that Nazi Germany was facing
defeat, thousands of concentration camp prisoners were still
dying. The monstrous machinery of the final solution kept
running until the last moment, although the extensive empire
of Nazi concentration camps had already collapsed. The
Nazis were already trying to cover over the traces of their
Auschwitz Chambers Used For The Last TimeAuschwitz ChambersVideo
At Auschwitz seven buildings existed which were used
as gas chambers. In addition, two other sites were also
used as gas chambers but only for a few gassing actions:
the cellar of Block 11 in the Stammlager, where the first
test gassings were carried out in August 1941, and a
delousing barrack at the Main Economic Area near the
Stammlager, called "Kanada I", where 200 members of the
Sonderkommando were killed with "Zyklon B" gas on 23
Death MarchesDeath MarchesA massive Soviet 1944 summer offensive in eastern
Belarus annihilated German Army Group Center and
permitted Soviet forces to overrun the first of the major Nazi
concentration camps, Lublin/Majdanek. Shortly after that
offensive, SS chief Heinrich Himmler ordered that prisoners
in all concentration camps and subcamps be evacuated
toward the interior of the Reich
German SurrenderGerman SurrenderGeneral Alfred Jodl, Chief of the Operations Staff in the German High Command, signs the document of unconditional German surrender at General Eisenhower's Headquarters in Reims, France, May 7, 1945. On Jodl's left is Admiral Von Friedeburg of the German Navy, and on his right is Major Wilhelm Oxenius of the German General Staff