The German government takes away freedom of speech, assembly, press, and freedom from invasion of privacy and from house search without warrant.
Franklin D. Roosevelt is inaugurated President of the United States.
The first concentration camp is established in Nazi Germany at Dachau. The first prisoners are political opponents.
A nationwide boycott of Jewish-owned businesses in Germany is carried out under Nazi leadership.
Jews are barred from government service; Jewish civil servants, including University professors and school teachers, are fired from their positions.
The law against "overcrowding in German schools and universities" is adopted, restricting the number of Jewish children allowed to attend. Children of war veterans and those with one non-Jewish parent are initially exempted.
Books by Jews and opponents of Nazism are burned publicly.
Laws are passed in Germany that permit the forced sterilization of Gypsies, the mentally and physically disabled, African-Germans, and others considered "inferior" or "unfit."
Germany withdraws from the League of Nations.
In all German schools it is officially taught that "non-Aryans" are racially inferior. Jewish children are prohibited from participating in "Aryan" sports clubs, school orchestras, and other extracurricular activities. Jewish children are banned from play
Adolph Hitler declares himself president and chancellor of the Third Reich after the death of Paul von Hindenburg.
First major wave of arrests of homosexuals occurs throughout Germany, continuing into November.
The Saar region is annexed by Germany.
Hitler violates the Versailles Treaty by renewing the compulsory military draft.
Jehovah's Witnesses are banned from all civil service jobs and are arrested throughout Germany.
"No Jews" signs and notices are posted outside German towns and villages, and outside shops and restaurants.
Jews are prohibited from serving in the German armed forces.
The Nuremberg Laws deprive German Jews of their citizenship.
Jewish doctors are no longer permitted to practice in government institutions in Germany.
Hitler's army invades the Rhineland.
The first German Gypsies are arrested and deported to Dachau concentration camp.
The Olympic Games take place in Berlin. Anti-Jewish signs (i.e., "Jews Not Welcome") are removed until the Games are completed.
The Ministry of Science and Education prohibits teaching by "non-Aryans" in public schools and bans private instruction by Jewish teachers.
Further restrictions are imposed on the number of Jewish students attending German schools.
Buchenwald concentration camp opens.
Jews can obtain passports for travel outside of Germany only in special cases.
The German government passes a decree requiring the registration of all Gypsies without a fixed address living in Austria; by June 1938, all Gypsy children above the age of 14 have to be fingerprinted. This is a central part of the growing racial definiti
Germany annexes Austria.
Representatives from thirty-two countries meet at Evian, France, to discuss refugee policies. Most of the countries refuse to let in more Jewish refugees.
The German government announces Jews must carry identification cards.
An attempt is made by Herschel Grynzpan to assassinate a German diplomat in Paris.
Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass"): Nazi organized nation-wide pogroms result in the burning of hundreds of synagogues; the looting and destruction of many Jewish homes, schools, and community offices; vandalism; and the looting of 7,500 Jewish store
All Jewish children are expelled from German schools and can attend only separate Jewish schools.
German Jews are ordered to pay one billion Reichsmarks in reparations for damages of Kristallinacht.
Decrees ban Jews from public streets on certain days; Jews are forbidden drivers' licenses and car registrations.
Jews must sell their businesses and real estate and hand over their securities and jewelry to the government at artificially low prices.
Jews may no longer attend universities as teachers and/or students.
Germany invades and occupies Czechoslovakia.
Cuba and the United States refuse to accept Jewish refugees aboard the ship S.S. St. Louis, which is forced to return to Europe.
Two-thousand Gypsy males above the age of 16 are arrested in Burgenland Province (formerly Austria) and sent to Dachau and Buchenwald concentration camps; 1,000 Gypsy girls and women above the age of 15 are arrested and sent to the Ravensbruck concentrati
Soviet-German Non-aggression Pact signed.
The German army invades Poland and World War II begins.
Jews are forced to turn in radios, cameras, and other electric objects to the police. Jews receive more restrictive ration coupons than other Germans. They do not receive coupons for meat, milk, etc. Jews also receive fewer and more limited clothing ratio
Hitler extends powers to doctors to kill institutionalized mentally and physically disabled persons in the "euthanasia" program.
Germans force Jews in Poland to wear a yellow Star of David on their chests or a blue-and-white Star of David armband.
The first Polish ghetto is established.
The German army invades and defeats Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and France.
Approximately 164,000 Polish Jews are concentrated and imprisoned in the Lódz ghetto which is established and sealed off from the outside world.
A concentration camp is established at Auschwitz, Poland.
Anti-Jewish laws are passed by France's Vichy Government.
The Warsaw ghetto is established.
The Warsaw ghetto is closed off with approximately 500,000 inhabitants.
Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia join the Axis Powers.