The Holocaust

  • Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor of Germany

    Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor of Germany
  • The German government cracks down on individual freedom.

    The German government cracks down on individual freedom.
    The German government takes away freedom of speech, assembly, press, and freedom from invasion of privacy and from house search without warrant.
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt was inaugurated as the U.S. President.

    Franklin Delano Roosevelt was inaugurated as the U.S. President.
  • Nazi's establish first concentration camp.

    Nazi's establish first concentration camp.
    The first concentration camp is established in Nazi Germany at Dachau. The first prisoners are political opponents.
  • Anti-Semitic boycott against Jewish Businesses

    Anti-Semitic boycott against Jewish Businesses
    A nationwide boycott of Jewish-owned businesses in Germany is carried out under Nazi leadership.
  • Jewish Civil Servants Fired.

    Jewish Civil Servants Fired.
    Jews are barred from government service; Jewish civil servants, including University professors and school teachers, are fired from their positions.
  • Jewish Kids are Removed From Schools

    Jewish Kids are Removed From Schools
    The law against "overcrowding in German schools and universities" is adopted, restricting the number of Jewish children allowed to attend. Children of war veterans and those with one non-Jewish parent are initially exempted.
  • Anti-Nazi Books are Burned

    Anti-Nazi Books are Burned
    Books by Jews and opponents of Nazism are burned publicly.
  • Discrimination escalates.

    Discrimination escalates.
    Laws are passed in Germany that permit the forced sterilization of Gypsies, the mentally and physically disabled, African-Germans, and others considered "inferior" or "unfit."
  • Germany withdraws from the League of Nations.

    Germany withdraws from the League of Nations.
  • Aryans promoted as master race

    Aryans promoted as master race
    In all German schools it is officially taught that "non-Aryans" are racially inferior. Jewish children are prohibited from participating in "Aryan" sports clubs, school orchestras, and other extracurricular activities. Jewish children are banned from playgrounds, swimming pools, and parks in many German cities and towns.
  • Hitler takes complete power

    Hitler takes complete power
    Adolph Hitler declares himself president and chancellor of the Third Reich after the death of Paul von Hindenburg.
  • Crackdown on homosexuals

    Crackdown on homosexuals
    First major wave of arrests of homosexuals occurs throughout Germany, continuing into November.
  • More Expansion

    More Expansion
    The Saar region is annexed by Germany.
  • Instates Military Draft

    Instates Military Draft
    Hitler violates the Versailles Treaty by renewing the compulsory military draft.
  • Anti-Jehovah's Witness laws take effect.

    Anti-Jehovah's Witness laws take effect.
    Jehovah's Witnesses are banned from all civil service jobs and are arrested throughout Germany.
  • Jews No Longer Welcome

    Jews No Longer Welcome
    "No Jews" signs and notices are posted outside German towns and villages, and outside shops and restaurants.
  • Almost Gone

    Almost Gone
    Jews are prohibited from serving in the German armed forces.
  • No Longer Citizens

    No Longer Citizens
    The Nuremberg Laws deprive German Jews of their citizenship.
  • Completely Removed

    Completely Removed
    Jewish doctors are no longer permitted to practice in government institutions in Germany.
  • Terrtiorial Expansion Begins

    Terrtiorial Expansion Begins
    Hitler's army invades the Rhineland.
  • Move against Gypsies

    Move against Gypsies
    The first German Gypsies are arrested and deported to Dachau concentration camp.
  • Olympics in Berlin, Anti Semitism Hidden

    Olympics in Berlin, Anti Semitism Hidden
    The Olympic Games take place in Berlin. Anti-Jewish signs (i.e., "Jews Not Welcome") are removed until the Games are completed.
  • Education Taken Over by Aryans

    Education Taken Over by Aryans
    The Ministry of Science and Education prohibits teaching by "non-Aryans" in public schools and bans private instruction by Jewish teachers.
  • Tightening Semitic Involvement Further

    Tightening Semitic Involvement Further
    Further restrictions are imposed on the number of Jewish students attending German schools.
  • More Camps

    More Camps
    Buchenwald concentration camp opens.
  • No Escape

    No Escape
    Jews can obtain passports for travel outside of Germany only in special cases.
  • Austria Becomes Part of the Third Reich

    Austria Becomes Part of the Third Reich
    Germany annexes Austria.
  • Gypsies further Limited

    Gypsies further Limited
    The German government passes a decree requiring the registration of all Gypsies without a fixed address living in Austria; by June 1938, all Gypsy children above the age of 14 have to be fingerprinted. This is a central part of the growing racial definition of Gypsies as "criminally asocial."
  • No Way Out

    No Way Out
    Representatives from thirty-two countries meet at Evian, France, to discuss refugee policies. Most of the countries refuse to let in more Jewish refugees.
  • If You're Jewish, You're Out

    If You're Jewish, You're Out
    The German government announces Jews must carry identification cards.
  • Assassination attempt in Paris

    Assassination attempt in Paris
    An attempt is made by Herschel Grynzpan to assassinate a German diplomat in Paris.
  • Anti Semitic Brutality

    Anti Semitic Brutality
    Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass"): Nazi organized nation-wide pogroms result in the burning of hundreds of synagogues; the looting and destruction of many Jewish homes, schools, and community offices; vandalism; and the looting of 7,500 Jewish stores. Many Jews are beaten, and more than 90 are killed. Thirty-thousand Jewish men are arrested and imprisoned in concentration camps. Several thousand Jewish women are arrested and sent to local jails. This is followed by a punitive fine to be pa
  • Not Our Fault, It's Yours

    Not Our Fault, It's Yours
    German Jews are ordered to pay one billion Reichsmarks in reparations for damages of Kristallinacht.
  • No More Education

    No More Education
    All Jewish children are expelled from German schools and can attend only separate Jewish schools.
  • Worse Than Animals

    Worse Than Animals
    Decrees ban Jews from public streets on certain days; Jews are forbidden drivers' licenses and car registrations.
  • Moving Out

    Moving Out
    Jews must sell their businesses and real estate and hand over their securities and jewelry to the government at artificially low prices.
  • Last But Not Least

    Last But Not Least
    Jews may no longer attend universities as teachers and/or students.
  • More Land

    More Land
    Germany invades and occupies Czechoslovakia.
  • You're Not Allowed Here

    You're Not Allowed Here
    Cuba and the United States refuse to accept Jewish refugees aboard the ship S.S. St. Louis, which is forced to return to Europe.
  • Gypsies to Concentration Camps

    Gypsies to Concentration Camps
    Two-thousand Gypsy males above the age of 16 are arrested in Burgenland Province (formerly Austria) and sent to Dachau and Buchenwald concentration camps; 1,000 Gypsy girls and women above the age of 15 are arrested and sent to the Ravensbruck concentration camp.
  • Friends with My Enemies

    Friends with My Enemies
    Soviet-German Non-aggression Pact signed.
  • The Last Straw

    The Last Straw
    The German army invades Poland and World War II begins.
  • Lower their Morale

    Lower their Morale
    Jews are forced to turn in radios, cameras, and other electric objects to the police. Jews receive more restrictive ration coupons than other Germans. They do not receive coupons for meat, milk, etc. Jews also receive fewer and more limited clothing ration cards than do Germans.
  • You're Sick? You're Dead

    You're Sick? You're Dead
    Hitler extends powers to doctors to kill institutionalized mentally and physically disabled persons in the "euthanasia" program.
  • Identification

    Identification
    Germans force Jews in Poland to wear a yellow Star of David on their chests or a blue-and-white Star of David armband.
  • In the Ghetto

    In the Ghetto
    The first Polish ghetto is established.
  • Victorious

    Victorious
    The German army invades and defeats Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and France.
  • More Ghettos

    More Ghettos
    Approximately 164,000 Polish Jews are concentrated and imprisoned in the Lódz ghetto which is established and sealed off from the outside world.
  • Creation of Auschwitz

    Creation of Auschwitz
    A concentration camp is established at Auschwitz, Poland.
  • Infamous Warsaw

    Infamous Warsaw
    The Warsaw ghetto is established.
  • More Anti-Semitism

    More Anti-Semitism
    Anti-Jewish laws are passed by France's Vichy Government.
  • Overflowing

    Overflowing
    Five thousand Gypsies are deported from labor and internment camps in Austria to the Lódz ghetto in Poland.
  • Maximum Capacity

    Maximum Capacity
    The Warsaw ghetto is closed off with approximately 500,000 inhabitants.
  • Because Germany Just Wasn't Enough

    Because Germany Just Wasn't Enough
    Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia join the Axis Powers.
  • Education Refusal Widens

    Education Refusal Widens
    Gypsy and African-German children are expelled from public schools.
  • Third Reich Spreads Its Boundaries

    Third Reich Spreads Its Boundaries
    The German army invades North Africa.
  • The No Longer Mighty Greece Falls.

    The No Longer Mighty Greece Falls.
    The German army invades Yugoslavia and Greece.
  • Anti-Semitism Spreads

    Anti-Semitism Spreads
    Romania passes law condemning adult Jews to forced labor.
  • The French Are Forced to Succumb

    The French Are Forced to Succumb
    The French Vichy government revokes civil rights of French Jews in North Africa.
  • Expansion

    Expansion
    Treblinka death camp opens.
  • Oh, What Was That Pact We Signed?

    Oh, What Was That Pact We Signed?
    The German army invades the Soviet Union. The Einsatzgruppen, mobile killing squads, begin the mass murders of Jews, Gypsies, and Communist leaders.
  • Even the Children?

    Even the Children?
    German Jews above the age of six are forced to wear a yellow Star of David sewed on the left side of their clothes with the word "Jude" printed in black.
  • Human Test Subjects

    Human Test Subjects
    Soviet prisoners of war and Polish prisoners are killed in Nazi test of gas chambers at Auschwitz in occupied Poland.
  • Mass Killings Begin

    Mass Killings Begin
    Nearly 34,000 Jews are murdered by mobile killing squads at Babi Yar, near Kiev in the Ukraine.
  • Because It Wasn't Bad Enough

    Because It Wasn't Bad Enough
    Construction begins on Birkenau, an addition to the Auschwitz camp. Birkenau includes a killing center which begins operations in early 1942.
  • They No Longer Belong

    They No Longer Belong
    First group of German and Austrian Jews are deported to ghettos in eastern Europe.
  • You Messed With the Wrong Guys...

    You Messed With the Wrong Guys...
    Japan attacks Pearl Harbor.
  • Gas Vans

    Gas Vans
    The Chelmno death camp opens near Lódz, Poland and the first gassing of victims in mobile gas vans occurs.
  • Don't Get in the Van...

    Don't Get in the Van...
    Five thousand Austrian Gypsies from the Lódz ghetto are deported to the killing center at Chelmno where they are all killed in mobile gas vans.
  • Germany's Fatal Mistake

    Germany's Fatal Mistake
    Germany declares war on the United States.
  • Genocide Begins

    Genocide Begins
    Nazi "extermination" camps located in occupied Poland at Auschwitz, Birkenau, Treblinka, Sobibor, Belzec, and Majdanek-Lublin begins mass murder of Jews in gas chambers.
  • If the Ghettos weren't Bad Enough

    If the Ghettos weren't Bad Enough
    Jews in the Lódz ghetto are deported to the killing center at Chelmno.
  • Final "Solution"

    Final "Solution"
    Fifteen Nazi and government leaders meet at Wannsee, a section of Berlin, to discuss the "final solution to the Jewish question".
  • Robbed, Then Killed

    Robbed, Then Killed
    Approximately ten thousand Jews, who had arrived in the Lódz ghetto some six months earlier from Germany, Luxembourg, Vienna, and Prague, are deported to Chelmno. Their baggage is confiscated before they board the train.
  • ID, Please

    ID, Please
    Jews in France and the Netherlands are required to wear identifying Stars of David.
  • Not Our Schools, Or Your Schools

    Not Our Schools, Or Your Schools
    The German government closes all Jewish schools.
  • Resistance is Futile

    Resistance is Futile
    Jewish fighting organizations established in the Warsaw ghetto.
  • Can't Work? Come With Us

    Can't Work? Come With Us
    Approximately fifteen thousand Jews in the Lódz ghetto are deported to Chelmno, mostly children under ten and individuals over sixty-five, but also others who are too weak or ill to work. By September 16, approximately fifty-five thousand Jews have been deported to the killing center at Chelmno.
  • To Auschwitz With You

    To  Auschwitz With You
    All Jews in concentration camps in Germany are sent to death camp at Auschwitz.
  • Not As Bad, But Still

    Not As Bad, But Still
    A special internment camp for non-Jewish Polish youth is opened in Lódz.
  • Gypsies To Birkenau

    Gypsies To Birkenau
    All Gypsies in Germany and Nazi occupied countries, with few exceptions, are arrested and deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau.
  • 16 Versus The SS

    16 Versus The SS
    16 Jews in the Warsaw ghetto initiate resistance to deportation by the Germans to the death camps.
  • No More Need for the Ghettos

    No More Need for the Ghettos
    The Nazis order all of the ghettos in Poland and the Soviet Union destroyed.
  • Rebellion

    Rebellion
    The inmates at Treblinka rebel.
  • Smuggled out of Denmark

    Smuggled out of Denmark
    The Danish citizens smuggle most of the nation's Jews to neutral Sweden.
  • Armed and Dangerous

    Armed and Dangerous
    The inmates at Sobibor initiate an armed rebellion.
  • Finally Taking Action

    Finally Taking Action
    The War Refugee Board is established by President Franklin Roosevelt.
  • More Land

    More Land
    The German army invades Hungary.
  • More Land, More People to Kill

    More Land, More People to Kill
    The Nazis begin deportation of Hungarian Jews. Over 430,000 Jews are sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau where most are gassed.
  • The Tide Turns

    The Tide Turns
    The Allied Powers invade Normandy.
  • Ghettos Lose Their Usefulness

    Ghettos Lose Their Usefulness
    Seven thousand one hundred ninety-six Jews are deported from the Lódz ghetto to Chelmno where they are killed.
  • Mutiny

    Mutiny
    German officers fail and are caught in an attempt to assassinate Hitler.
  • Soviets Push From the East

    Soviets Push From the East
    The Soviet Army liberates the Majdanek death camp.
  • Fireworks Display

    Fireworks Display
    The prisoners at Auschwitz-Birkenau rebel and blow up one crematorium.
  • Failure is Realized

    Failure is Realized
    Nazis empty Auschwitz and start prisoners on "death marches" to Germany.
  • Memories Are All That's Left

    Memories Are All That's Left
    The Soviet army liberates Auschwitz.
  • More Camps Liberated

    More Camps Liberated
    Troops from the United States liberate survivors from the Buchenwald and Dachau concentration camps.
  • The Fuhrer Falls

    The Fuhrer Falls
    Adolph Hitler commits suicide in his bunker in Berlin rather than be caught by the advancing Soviet army.
  • Freedom For All

    Freedom For All
    Troops from the United States liberate Mauthausen concentration camp.
  • The Master Race Bends Its Knee

    The Master Race Bends Its Knee
    Germany surrenders and war in Europe is ended.
  • German Fate Decided

    German Fate Decided
    The war crimes tribunal is convened at Nuremberg, Germany.