Auschwitz

  • Adolf Hitler's Release

    Adolf Hitler's Release
    After Hitler's release from prison, he rebuilds the Nazi Party. He established himself as sole leader and everyone owed him loyalty. The party structure includes the SA (storm troopers), a paramilitary arm; the SS, an elite group within the SA; and the Hitler Youth.
  • Jews Begin to Emigrate from Germany

    Jews Begin to Emigrate from Germany
    The Nazis issue a decree ordering compulsory retirement of non-Aryans from civil service. Hitler calls for a boycott against Jewish businesses. These actions, as well as Nazi attacks on Jews, causing many Jews to begin emigrating from Germany.
  • Jews Required to Wear Star of David

    Jews Required to Wear Star of David
    The Nazi governor of Poland requires Jews to wear the Star of David on their clothing for identification.-1939
  • Ghetto Established in Lódz, Poland

    Ghetto Established in Lódz, Poland
    The Germans establish a ghetto in Lódz, Poland, and force the city's 200,000 Jews into it. Some 20,000 more Jews from other countries would be deported to Lódz in coming years. Lódz is one of more than three hundred ghettos in Nazi-controlled territory. The ghettos serve as holding places for Jews on the way to the death camps.
  • Auschwitz Starts Being Built

    Auschwitz Starts Being Built
    Construction begins on Auschwitz, originally intended to house political prisoners.
  • First Auschwitz Prisoners

    First Auschwitz Prisoners
    The first prisoners arrive at Auschwitz They are members of the Polish resistance and intelligentsia.June
  • Prisoners Serve As Slave Labor for The Synthetic Rubber Plant

    Prisoners Serve As Slave Labor for The Synthetic Rubber Plant
    IG Farben, a large German chemical cartel, finalizes plans to establish a synthetic rubber plant at Auschwitz, investing in the construction of the camp. Prisoners serve as slave labor for the plant.
  • Soviet Prisons Moved to Auschwitz

    Soviet Prisons Moved to Auschwitz
    Germany invades the Soviet Union. Mobile killing units (Einsatzgruppen) follow the invaders to kill Jews and Soviet officers. By the fall of 1943, they will have killed 1.5 million Jews. Many Soviet prisoners are sent to Auschwitz.
  • Auschwitz Prisoners Killed

    Auschwitz Prisoners Killed
    The first Auschwitz victims, mostly Russian prisoners of war, are killed using Zyklon B gas.
  • Birkenau Construction Begins

    Birkenau Construction Begins
    Construction of the second Auschwitz camp, Birkenau, begins. Soviet POWs build the camp.
  • Allied Bombing of Hamburg, Germany

    Allied Bombing of Hamburg, Germany
    Allied bombing of Hamburg, Germany, Jews in the city are deported to the Lódz ghetto.
  • Wannsee Conference Decision

    Wannsee Conference Decision
    At the Wannsee Conference, Nazi officials discuss the Final Solution, a plan to kill all European Jews as well as Soviet prisoners of war and Gypsies. The Final Solution would involve several ministries within the German government bureaucracy and require an extensive rail system to move victims from across Europe to a network of ghettos, subcamps, and labor camps before they are sent to extermination camps. Approximately 3.5 million Jews die in the camps. In all, some six million Jews, about ha
  • Mass Murder at Birkenau

    Mass Murder at Birkenau
    Mass murder using Zyklon B begins at Birkenau.
  • Slovakian Government Deports Jews to Auschwitz

    Slovakian Government Deports Jews to Auschwitz
    The Slovakian government agrees to deport its Jews to Auschwitz and then pays Germany to take the deportees' dependents, too.
  • Kazimierz Piechowski Organizes an Escape

    Kazimierz Piechowski Organizes an Escape
    Kazimierz Piechowski, a Polish political prisoner at Auschwitz, organizes an escape from the camp.
  • SS and French police meet

    SS and French police meet
    SS and French police meet about police collaborating with Nazis in rounding up Jews. French authorities agree to arrest and deport foreign Jews, which they begin to do on July 16.
  • Himmler orders the beginning of Operation Reinhard

    Himmler orders the beginning of Operation Reinhard
    Himmler orders the beginning of Operation Reinhard, in which all ghettos would be liquidated and all Polish Jews within the General Government (a geographical description) would be murdered by the end of the year. He also orders the enlargement of the Birkenau camp at Auschwitz.
  • Gypsies Deported to Auschwitz

    Gypsies Deported to Auschwitz
    Himmler orders most Gypsies in Germany to be deported to Auschwitz.
  • Dr. Joseph Mengele Arrives at Auschwitz

    Dr. Joseph Mengele Arrives at Auschwitz
    Dr. Josef Mengele arrives at Auschwitz, where he conducts brutal medical experiments on prisoners.
  • Rudolf Höss is removed from Auschwitz

    Rudolf Höss is removed from Auschwitz
    Rudolf Höss is removed from Auschwitz as commandant due to corruption at the camp.
  • Jewish Prisoners Transferred to Buna-Monowitz

    Jewish Prisoners Transferred to Buna-Monowitz
    For the first time, Jewish prisoners from Auschwitz are transferred to the Buna-Monowitz subcamp to work for IG Farben.
  • Rome Jews Deported to Auschwitz

    Rome Jews Deported to Auschwitz
    The first Jews from Rome are deported to Auschwitz.
  • Rudolf Höss returns to Auschwitz

    Rudolf Höss returns to Auschwitz
    Rudolf Höss returns to Auschwitz to plan for the annihilation of Hungarian Jews. Nearly 440,000—half of the Jews in Hungary—are sent to Auschwitz. Many are gassed within days of their arrival.
  • Deportation Of Hungarian Jews Halted

    Deportation Of Hungarian Jews Halted
    Hungarian leader Miklos Horthy halts deportation of Jews from Hungary to Auschwitz.
  • Gypsy Camp Liquidated

    Gypsy Camp Liquidated
    The Gypsy Camp at Auschwitz is liquidated. Nazis send some four thousand Gypsies to the gas chambers.
  • The Lódz ghetto is liquidated

    The Lódz ghetto is liquidated
    The Lódz ghetto is liquidated. Sixty thousand Jews and an undetermined number of Gypsies are sent to Auschwitz.
  • Jews Leave for Auschwitz

    Jews Leave for Auschwitz
    The last transport of Jews leaves the Lódz ghetto for Auschwitz.
  • The Sonderkommandos at Auschwitz stage a revolt,

    The Sonderkommandos at Auschwitz stage a revolt,
    The Sonderkommandos at Auschwitz stage a revolt, destroying Crematorium IV. Some prisoners escape briefly but are recaptured. The SS kill many Sonderkommandos—even some who had not participated—in retaliation.
  • Last people Gassed at Auschwitz

    Last people Gassed at Auschwitz
    The last people are gassed at Auschwitz. The last recorded transport of Jewish prisoners arrives at Auschwitz.
  • Destruction of Auschwitz Begins

    Destruction of Auschwitz Begins
    The SS begins the destruction of the Auschwitz crematoria.
  • Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz

    Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz
    Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz. Only a few thousand prisoners remain.
  • British troops arrest Rudolf Höss,

    British troops arrest Rudolf Höss,
    British troops arrest Rudolf Höss, who had escaped notice after the war and was now posing as a farm worker. He is tried and convicted at Nuremberg. While in prison awaiting execution, he writes his memoirs.
  • Rudolf Höss killed

    Rudolf Höss killed
    Rudolf Höss is hanged at Auschwitz.
  • Rudolf Höss meets with Heinrich Himmler

     Rudolf Höss meets with Heinrich Himmler
    Rudolf Höss meets with Heinrich Himmler, who tells Höss to flee capture by disappearing into the army.