Holocaust Timeline

  • Adolf Hitler

    Adolf Hitler
    Adolf Hitler is appointed chancellor of Germany.
  • German Goverment

    German Goverment
    The German government takes away freedom of speech, assembly, press, and freedom from invasion of privacy and from house search without warrant.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt

    Franklin D. Roosevelt
    Franklin D. Roosevelt is inaugurated President of the United States.
  • Nazi Germany

    Nazi Germany
    The first concentration camp is established in Nazi Germany at Dachau. The first prisoners are political opponents.
  • Jewish-Owned Businesses

    Jewish-Owned Businesses
    A nationwide boycott of Jewish-owned businesses in Germany is carried out under Nazi leadership.
  • Jews

    Jews are barred from government service; Jewish civil servants, including University professors and school teachers, are fired from their positions.
  • Law againest Jews

    Law againest Jews
    The law against "overcrowding in German schools and universities" is adopted, restricting the number of Jewish children allowed to attend. Children of war veterans and those with one non-Jewish parent are initially exempted.
  • Books by Jews

    Books by Jews
    Books by Jews and opponents of Nazism are burned publicly.
  • Laws in Germany

    Laws in Germany
    Laws are passed in Germany that permit the forced sterilization of Gypsies, the mentally and physically disabled, African-Germans, and others considered "inferior" or "unfit."
  • League of Nations

    League of Nations
    Germany withdraws from the League of Nations.
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    In all German schools it is officially taught that "non-Aryans" are racially inferior. Jewish children are prohibited from participating in "Aryan" sports clubs, school orchestras, and other extracurricular activities. Jewish children are banned from playgrounds, swimming pools, and parks in many German cities and towns.
  • President and Chancellor

    President and Chancellor
    Adolph Hitler declares himself president and chancellor of the Third Reich after the death of Paul von Hindenburg.
  • Arreset of homosexuals

    Arreset of homosexuals
    First major wave of arrests of homosexuals occurs throughout Germany, continuing into November.
  • Saar region

    Saar region
    The Saar region is annexed by Germany.
  • Hitler Violates Versailes Treaty

    Hitler Violates Versailes Treaty
    Hitler violates the Versailles Treaty by renewing the compulsory military draft.
  • Jehovah Witnessess

    Jehovah Witnessess
    Jehovah's Witnesses are banned from all civil service jobs and are arrested throughout Germany.
  • Jews

    "No Jews" signs and notices are posted outside German towns and villages, and outside shops and restaurants.
  • German Armed forces

    German Armed forces
    Jews are prohibited from serving in the German armed forces.
  • Nuremberg Laws

    Nuremberg Laws
    The Nuremberg Laws deprive German Jews of their citizenship.
  • Jewish Doctors

    Jewish Doctors
    Jewish doctors are no longer permitted to practice in government institutions in Germany.
  • Army

    Hitler's army invades the Rhineland.
  • German Gypsies

    German Gypsies
    The first German Gypsies are arrested and deported to Dachau concentration camp.
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    Olympic Games

    The Olympic Games take place in Berlin. Anti-Jewish signs (i.e., "Jews Not Welcome") are removed until the Games are completed.
  • Public Schools

    Public Schools
    The Ministry of Science and Education prohibits teaching by "non-Aryans" in public schools and bans private instruction by Jewish teachers.
  • German Schools

    German Schools
    Further restrictions are imposed on the number of Jewish students attending German schools.
  • Camp Opens

    Camp Opens
    Buchenwald concentration camp opens.
  • Passports

    Jews can obtain passports for travel outside of Germany only in special cases.
  • Germany annexes Austria.

    Germany annexes Austria.
    Germany annexes Austria.
  • Decree

    The German government passes a decree requiring the registration of all Gypsies without a fixed address living in Austria; by June 1938, all Gypsy children above the age of 14 have to be fingerprinted. This is a central part of the growing racial definition of Gypsies as "criminally asocial."
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    Refugee policies

    Representatives from thirty-two countries meet at Evian, France, to discuss refugee policies. Most of the countries refuse to let in more Jewish refugees.
  • German Government

    German Government
    The German government announces Jews must carry identification cards.
  • Asassinate

    An attempt is made by Herschel Grynzpan to assassinate a German diplomat in Paris.
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    Jewish Woman are getting arrested

    Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass"): Nazi organized nation-wide pogroms result in the burning of hundreds of synagogues; the looting and destruction of many Jewish homes, schools, and community offices; vandalism; and the looting of 7,500 Jewish stores. Many Jews are beaten, and more than 90 are killed. Thirty-thousand Jewish men are arrested and imprisoned in concentration camps. Several thousand Jewish women are arrested and sent to local jails. This is followed by a punitive fine to be pa
  • One billion Reichsmarks

    One billion Reichsmarks
    German Jews are ordered to pay one billion Reichsmarks in reparations for damages of Kristallinacht.
  • Jewish Childern

    Jewish Childern
    All Jewish children are expelled from German schools and can attend only separate Jewish schools.
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    Public Streeets

    Decrees ban Jews from public streets on certain days; Jews are forbidden drivers' licenses and car registrations.
  • Sell businesses and Real estate

    Sell businesses and Real estate
    Jews must sell their businesses and real estate and hand over their securities and jewelry to the government at artificially low prices.
  • Universities

    Jews may no longer attend universities as teachers and/or students.
  • German invades and defeats Denmark

    The German army invades and defeats Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and France.
  • Invades

    Germany invades and occupies Czechoslovakia.
  • Gypsy Males

    Gypsy Males
    Two-thousand Gypsy males above the age of 16 are arrested in Burgenland Province (formerly Austria) and sent to Dachau and Buchenwald concentration camps; 1,000 Gypsy girls and women above the age of 15 are arrested and sent to the Ravensbruck concentration camp.
  • Jewish Refugees

    Jewish Refugees
    Cuba and the United States refuse to accept Jewish refugees aboard the ship S.S. St. Louis, which is forced to return to Europe.
  • Soviet-German Non-aggression Pact signed.

    Soviet-German Non-aggression Pact signed.
    Soviet-German Non-aggression Pact signed.
  • Invades Poland

    Invades Poland
    The German army invades Poland and World War II begins.
  • Jews are being forced to do things because of the Germans

    Jews are being forced to do things because of the Germans
    Jews are forced to turn in radios, cameras, and other electric objects to the police. Jews receive more restrictive ration coupons than other Germans. They do not receive coupons for meat, milk, etc. Jews also receive fewer and more limited clothing ration cards than do Germans.
  • Hitler gets power

    Hitler gets power
    Hitler extends powers to doctors to kill institutionalized mentally and physically disabled persons in the "euthanasia" program.
  • Germans was forcing jews in Poland

    Germans was forcing jews in Poland
    Germans force Jews in Poland to wear a yellow Star of David on their chests or a blue-and-white Star of David armband.
  • Polish ghetto

    Polish ghetto
    The first Polish ghetto is established.
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    Jews are concentrated and imprisoned

    Approximately 164,000 Polish Jews are concentrated and imprisoned in the Lódz ghetto which is established and sealed off from the outside world.
  • Concentration camp

    Concentration camp
    A concentration camp is established at Auschwitz, Poland.
  • Anti-Jews

    Anti-Jewish laws are passed by France's Vichy Government.
  • Warsaw ghetto

    Warsaw ghetto
    The Warsaw ghetto is established.
  • Warsaw ghetto

    Warsaw ghetto
    The Warsaw ghetto is closed off with approximately 500,000 inhabitants.
  • Axis powers

    Axis powers
    Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia join the Axis Powers.
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    Killing in moblie gas vans

    Five thousand Austrian Gypsies from the Lódz ghetto are deported to the killing center at Chelmno where they are all killed in mobile gas vans.
  • Expelled from public schools

    Expelled from public schools
    Gypsy and African-German children are expelled from public schools.
  • German invades North Africa

    German invades North Africa
    The German army invades North Africa.
  • German invades

    German invades
    The German army invades Yugoslavia and Greece.
  • Law condemning adult jews

    Romania passes law condemning adult Jews to forced labor.
  • German army invades Soviet Union

    The German army invades the Soviet Union. The Einsatzgruppen, mobile killing squads, begin the mass murders of Jews, Gypsies, and Communist leaders.
  • Civil rights of French Jews

    The French Vichy government revokes civil rights of French Jews in North Africa.
  • Yellow star of Davis sewed

    German Jews above the age of six are forced to wear a yellow Star of David sewed on the left side of their clothes with the word "Jude" printed in black.
  • Soviet prisoners of war and polish prisoners

    Soviet prisoners of war and Polish prisoners are killed in Nazi test of gas chambers at Auschwitz in occupied Poland.
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    Jews are murdered

    Nearly 34,000 Jews are murdered by mobile killing squads at Babi Yar, near Kiev in the Ukraine.
  • Auschwitz camp

    Construction begins on Birkenau, an addition to the Auschwitz camp. Birkenau includes a killing center which begins operations in early 1942.
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    Jews are deported to the ghettos

    First group of German and Austrian Jews are deported to ghettos in eastern Europe.
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    Gpysies are deporting

    Five thousand Gypsies are deported from labor and internment camps in Austria to the Lódz ghetto in Poland.
  • Japan attacks

    Japan attacks Pearl Harbor.
  • Chelmno death camp

    The Chelmno death camp opens near Lódz, Poland and the first gassing of victims in mobile gas vans occurs.
  • Germany

    Germany declares war on the United States.
  • Ghetto

    Jews in the Lódz ghetto are deported to the killing center at Chelmno.
  • Government leaders

    Fifteen Nazi and government leaders meet at Wannsee, a section of Berlin, to discuss the "final solution to the Jewish question".
  • Externination camps

    Nazi "extermination" camps located in occupied Poland at Auschwitz, Birkenau, Treblinka, Sobibor, Belzec, and Majdanek-Lublin begins mass murder of Jews in gas chambers.
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    Jews arrives in the Lodz ghetto

    Approximately ten thousand Jews, who had arrived in the Lódz ghetto some six months earlier from Germany, Luxembourg, Vienna, and Prague, are deported to Chelmno. Their baggage is confiscated before they board the train.
  • Death camp

    Treblinka death camp opens. Jews in France and the Netherlands are required to wear identifying Stars of David.
  • German government

    The German government closes all Jewish schools.
  • Jewish fighting

    Jewish fighting organizations established in the Warsaw ghetto.
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    Approximately fifteen thousand Jews in the Lódz ghetto are deported to Chelmno, mostly children under ten and individuals over sixty-five, but also others who are too weak or ill to work. By September 16, approximately fifty-five thousand Jews have been deported to the killing center at Chelmno.
  • Jews in Concentration camps

    All Jews in concentration camps in Germany are sent to death camp at Auschwitz.
  • Special internetment camp

    A special internment camp for non-Jewish Polish youth is opened in Lódz.
  • Gypsies

    All Gypsies in Germany and Nazi occupied countries, with few exceptions, are arrested and deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau.
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    Warsaw ghetto

    16 Jews in the Warsaw ghetto initiate resistance to deportation by the Germans to the death camps.
  • Nazis ordered the ghettos into poland

    The Nazis order all of the ghettos in Poland and the Soviet Union destroyed.
  • Danish Citizens

    The Danish citizens smuggle most of the nation's Jews to neutral Sweden.
  • Treblinka rebel

    The inmates at Treblinka rebel.
  • Sobibor initiate an armed rebellion

    The inmates at Sobibor initiate an armed rebellion.
  • War regugee board

    The War Refugee Board is established by President Franklin Roosevelt.
  • German army

    The German army invades Hungary.
  • Nazis begin deporation

    The Nazis begin deportation of Hungarian Jews. Over 430,000 Jews are sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau where most are gassed.
  • Alled powers

    The Allied Powers invade Normandy.
  • German officers

    German officers fail and are caught in an attempt to assassinate Hitler.
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    Seven thousand one hundred ninety-six Jews are deported from the Lódz ghetto to Chelmno where they are killed.
  • Soviet Army

    The Soviet Army liberates the Majdanek death camp.
  • Prisoners

    The prisoners at Auschwitz-Birkenau rebel and blow up one crematorium.
  • Death marches

    Nazis empty Auschwitz and start prisoners on "death marches" to Germany.
  • Soviet army

    The Soviet army liberates Auschwitz.
  • Troops from the united states

    Troops from the United States liberate survivors from the Buchenwald and Dachau concentration camps.
  • Caught by the Advancing soviet army

    Caught by the Advancing soviet army
    Adolph Hitler commits suicide in his bunker in Berlin rather than be caught by the advancing Soviet army.
  • Troops from the united states

    Troops from the united states
    Troops from the United States liberate Mauthausen concentration camp.
  • Germany surrenders

    Germany surrenders and war in Europe is ended.
  • War crimes tribunal

    War crimes tribunal
    The war crimes tribunal is convened at Nuremberg, Germany.