The Hungarian Army rounds up 18,000 Jews at Kamenets-Podolsk
Himmler Summons Quote
Himmler summons Auschwitz Kommandant Höss to Berlin and tells him, "The Führer has ordered the Final Solution of the Jewish question. We, the SS, have to carry out this order...I have therefore chosen Auschwitz for this purpose."
French approved Hitler
French Marshal Petain issues a radio broadcast approving collaboration with Hitler.
Nazi invades Russia
Nazis invade Russia (Jewish pop. 3 million).
10,000 Jew Deathes
Romanian troops conduct a pogrom against Jews in the town of Jassy, killing 10,000
Taking Jewish Property
Ghettos established at Kovno, Minsk, Vitebsk and Zhitomer. Also in July, the government of Vichy France seizes Jewish owned property.
As the German Army advances, SS Einsatzgruppen follow along and conduct mass murder of Jews in seized lands.
Nazi racial 'philosopher' Alfred Rosenberg is appointed Reich Minister for the Eastern Occupied Territories to administer territories seized from the Soviet Union.
In occupied Poland near Lublin, Majdanek concentration camp becomes operational.
3,800 Deathes In Konvo
3,800 Jews killed during a pogrom by Lithuanians in Kovno
Göring instructs Heydrich to prepare for Final Solution.
Jews in Romania forced into Transnistria. By December, 70,000 perish
German Jews ordered to wear yellow stars.
First Gas Tests
The first test use of Zyklon-B gas at Auschwitz.
Vilna Ghetto Established
The Vilna Ghetto is established containing 40,000 Jews.
In occupied Poland, near Lodz, Chelmno extermination camp becomes operational. Jews taken there are placed in mobile gas vans and driven to a burial place while carbon monoxide from the engine exhaust is fed into the sealed rear compartment, killing them. The first gassing victims include 5,000 Gypsies who had been deported from the Reich to Lodz.
Beginning of general deportation of German Jews.
Nazis take Kiev.
23,000 Jews killed at Kamenets-Podolsk, in the Ukraine.
33,771 Jew Deathes
SS Einsatzgruppen murder 33,771 Jews at Babi Yar near Kiev.
35,000 Jews Shot
35,000 Jews from Odessa shot.
German Army Drive
Beginning of the German Army drive on Moscow.
Nazis forbid emigration of Jews from the Reich.
45,476 Jews Killed
SS Einsatzgruppe B reports a tally of 45,476 Jews killed.
Theresienstadt Ghetto is established
Theresienstadt Ghetto is established near Prague, Czechoslovakia. The Nazis will use it as a model ghetto for propaganda purposes.
Near Riga, a mass shooting of Latvian and German Jews.
Japn Attacks U.S.A
Japanese attack United States at Pearl Harbor. The next day the U.S. and Great Britain declare war on Japan.
Hitler Declares War On U.S.A
Hitler declares war on the United States. President Roosevelt then asks Congress for a declaration of war on Germany saying, "Never before has there been a greater challenge to life, liberty and civilization." The U.S.A. then enters the war in Europe and will concentrate nearly 90 percent of its military resources to defeat Hitler.
Stuma Leaves Romania carrying 769 Jews
The ship "Struma" leaves Romania for Palestine carrying 769 Jews but is later denied permission by British authorities to allow the passengers to disembark. In February 1942, it sails back into the Black Sea where it is intercepted by a Russian submarine and sunk as an "enemy target."
During a cabinet meeting, Hans Frank, Gauleiter of Poland, states - "Gentlemen, I must ask you to rid yourselves of all feeling of pity. We must annihilate the Jews wherever we find them and wherever it is possible in order to maintain there the structure of the Reich as a whole..."
Mass killings of Jews using Zyklon-B begin at Auschwitz-Birkenau in Bunker I (the red farmhouse) in Birkenau with the bodies being buried in mass graves in a nearby meadow.
Wannsee Conference to coordinate the "Final Solution."
229,052 Jews Dead
SS Einsatzgruppe A reports a tally of 229,052 Jews killed
In occupied Poland, Belzec extermination camp becomes operational. The camp is fitted with permanent gas chambers using carbon monoxide piped in from engines placed outside the chamber, but will later substitute Zyklon-B.
Deporting The Jews
The deportation of Jews from Lublin to Belzec
The start of deportation of Slovak Jews to Auschwitz.
French Jews to Aushwitz
The start of deportation of French Jews to Auschwitz.
Fritz Sauckel named Chief of Manpower to expedite recruitment of slave labor.
First trainloads of Jews from Paris arrive at Auschwitz.
First transports of Jews arrive at Majdanek.
German Jews are banned from using public transportation.
In occupied Poland, Sobibor extermination camp becomes operational. The camp is fitted with three gas chambers using carbon monoxide piped in from engines, but will later substitute Zyklon-B.
The New York Times reports on an inside page that Nazis have machine-gunned over 100,000 Jews in the Baltic states, 100,000 in Poland and twice as many in western Russia.
SS leader Heydrich is mortally wounded by Czech Underground agents.
Jews in France, Holland, Belgium, Croatia, Slovakia, Romania ordered to wear yellow stars.
Heydrich dies of his wounds.
Processed 97,000 People
SS report 97,000 persons have been "processed" in mobile gas vans.
Gas vans used in Riga.
After Heydriche's death
Nazis liquidate Lidice in retaliation for Heydrich's death.
Eichmann meets with representatives from France, Belgium and Holland to coordinate deportation plans for Jews.
More Gas Chambers
At Auschwitz, a second gas chamber, Bunker II (the white farmhouse), is made operational at Birkenau due to the number of Jews arriving.
Newyork Time Reports
The New York Times reports via the London Daily Telegraph that over 1,000,000 Jews have already been killed by Nazis.
Jews from Berlin sent to Theresienstadt.
Swiss representatives of the World Jewish Congress receive information from a German industrialist regarding the Nazi plan to exterminate the Jews. They then pass the information on to London and Washington.
Himmler grants permission for sterilization experiments at Auschwitz.
Beginning of deportation of Dutch Jews to Auschwitz.
Getting Put In Concentration Camps
12,887 Jews of Paris are rounded up and sent to Drancy Internment Camp located outside the city. A total of approximately 74,000 Jews, including 11,000 children, will eventually be transported from Drancy to Auschwitz, Majdanek and Sobibor.
Himmler visits Auschwitz-Birkenau for two days, inspecting all ongoing construction and expansion, then observes the extermination process from start to finish as two trainloads of Jews arrive from Holland. Kommandant Höss is then promoted. Construction includes four large gas chamber/crematories.
Himmler orders Operation Reinhard, mass deportations of Jews in Poland to extermination camps
Beginning of deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto to the new extermination camp, Treblinka. Also, beginning of the deportation of Belgian Jews to Auschwitz.
Left To Die
Treblinka extermination camp opened in occupied Poland, east of Warsaw. The camp is fitted with two buildings containing 10 gas chambers, each holding 200 persons. Carbon monoxide gas is piped in from engines placed outside the chamber, but Zyklon-B will later be substituted. Bodies are burned in open pits.
The start of deportations of Croatian Jews to Auschwitz.
Germany Attacks Russia
Beginning of German Army attack on Stalingrad in Russia.
Arrested In Fracnce
7,000 Jews arrested in unoccupied France
Himmler orders all Jews in concentration camps in Germany to be sent to Auschwitz and Majdanek.
Germans Sit There
A German eyewitness observes SS mass murder.
Preventing Bad Water
Open pit burning of bodies begins at Auschwitz in place of burial. The decision is made to dig up and burn those already buried, 107,000 corpses, to prevent fouling of ground water.
Reduction of food rations for Jews in Germany.
SS begins cashing in possessions and valuables of Jews from Auschwitz and Majdanek. German banknotes are sent to the Reichs Bank. Foreign currency, gold, jewels and other valuables are sent to SS Headquarters of the Economic Administration. Watches, clocks and pens are distributed to troops at the front. Clothing is distributed to German families. By February 1943, over 800 boxcars of confiscated goods will have left Auschwitz.
Mass Killing In Ukraine
Mass killing of Jews from Mizocz Ghetto in the Ukraine.
Group Of Jews
SS put down a revolt at Sachsenhausen by a group of Jews about to be sent to Auschwitz.
Deporting to Norway
Deportations of Jews from Norway to Auschwitz begin.
The first transport from Theresienstadt arrives at Auschwitz.
170,000 Deathes in Bialystok
The mass killing of 170,000 Jews in the area of Bialystok.
Arriving From Germany
The first transport of Jews from Germany arrives at Auschwitz.
600,000 Jews Murdered
Exterminations at Belzec cease after an estimated 600,000 Jews have been murdered. The camp is then dismantled, plowed over and planted.
U.S.A declares crimes
British Foreign Secretary Eden tells the British House of Commons the Nazis are "now carrying into effect Hitler's oft repeated intention to exterminate the Jewish people of Europe." The U.S. declares those crimes will be avenged
Sterilization experiments on women at Birkenau begin.
Reaching One Million
The number of Jews killed by SS Einsatzgruppen passes one million. Nazis then use special units of slave laborers to dig up and burn the bodies to remove all traces.
First resistance by Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto.
Arrested And Sent
Nazis order all Gypsies arrested and sent to extermination camps.
Ernst Kaltenbrunner succeeds Heydrich as head of RSHA.
70,000 jJews to Palastine
The Romanian government proposes to the Allies the transfer of 70,000 Jews to Palestine, but receives no response from Britain or the U.S.
Greek Jews are ordered into ghettos.
Germans Surendered to Russia
Germans surrender to Russian troops at Stalingrad in the first big defeat of Hitler's armies.
Sent to Aushwitz
Jews working in Berlin armaments industry are sent to Auschwitz.
New York Helps
In New York, American Jews hold a mass rally at Madison Square Garden to pressure the U.S. government into helping the Jews of Europe.
The start of deportations of Jews from Greece to Auschwitz, lasting until August, totaling 49,900 persons.
The Krakow Ghetto is liquidated.
Bulgaria states opposition to deportation of its Jews.
New Gas Chambers
Newly built gas chamber/crematory IV opens at Auschwitz.