History Timeline

  • Period: 1301 to


    The Renaissance was a transformative period in European history spanning roughly from the 14th to the 17th Century. It marked a revival in art, literature, philosophy, politics, and culture. Its key aspects are: Cultural rebirth, Artistic revolution, Humanism, Scientific advancements, Literary and Philosophical contributions, Spread of knowledge and Political changes. This era marked a major shift from the medieval period to the modern period, laying the groundwork for important changes.
  • 1420

    Florence Cathedral's dome by Brunelleschi

    Florence Cathedral's dome by Brunelleschi
    A pictorial testimony from the 14th century already announced the purpose to cover the Cathedral's transept with a dome. When Brunelleschi was asked for advice, the Duomo was finished, but they needed to cover the hole. No one could handle it, so the construction was delayed. Filippo presented his project with Donatello and Di Banco. More artists went to the call, but none of them presented clear outlines, neither Filippo Brunelleschi, but they gave him the work in 1420. And it was a success.
  • 1498

    Pietá, by Michelangelo Buonarroti

    Pietá, by Michelangelo Buonarroti
    Is a work housed in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City. It is the first of a number of works of the same theme. The statue was for the French Cardinal Jean de Bilhères, who was a representative in Rome. This sculpture was made for the cardinal's funeral monument, but was moved in the 18th century. Furthermore, it is the only work signed by Michelangelo. This work shows Jesus' body in Mary's lap (after Crucifixion). This work balances the Renaissance ideals of classical beauty & naturalism.
  • 1509

    The school of Athens, by Raphael Sanzio

    The school of Athens, by Raphael Sanzio
    School of Athens, painted by Sanzio, in the Stanza della Segnatura, perhaps the most famous of all his paintings and one of the most important artworks of Renaissance.
    Julius II called Raphael at the suggestion of Donato Bramante when he was little known in Rome, but he soon made a deep impression on the volatile Julius and the papal court and his authority as a master grew day by day. His first task was to paint a cycle of frescoes in a suite of medium-sized rooms where Julius lived and worked.
  • Period: 1516 to 1556

    The reign of Carlos I

    Charles was king of Spain from 1516 to 1556 & emperor of Germany from 1519 to 1556. Influenced by Erasmism in the first stage of his reign he tried to begin a universal Christian empire, but he needed Milanese as a means of uniting his kingdoms. He achieved it in 1526 through the Treaty of Madrid, and the Duchy of Burgundy by defeating Francis I in 1522 & in 1525. But the French king allied with Clement VII and the independent Italian princes in the League of Cognac declaring war on the emperor.
  • Period: 1520 to 1521

    Revolt of the Comuneros in Castilla

    The War of the Communities of Castile or the Revolt of the Comuneros, took place during the reign of Charles I. It was an armed uprising led by the “comuneros” from the inland cities of Castile, with Toledo & Valladolid at the head of the uprising. It has been interpreted in different ways, as an anti-seigneurial revolt, as a bourgeois revolution, or even as an anti-fiscal movement. It was motivated by the political instability in the Crown of Castile from the beginning of the 16th century.
  • 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    Peace of Augsburg
    At the meeting of the Diet of Augsburg, Martin Luther presented his criticisms of the Catholic Church and the pope and was called to testify to defend and explain the ideas of his 95 Theses. In the trial, he refused to recant and was declared an enemy of the church. So the Peace of Augsburg served as a peace treaty between Emperor Charles V, who had defended Catholicism, and Lutherans within the Holy Roman Empire. This treaty granted official legal status to the Lutheranism in the empire.
  • Period: 1556 to

    Reign of Felipe II

    In his government he had a system of permanent councils for the administration of territories like the Royal Councils of Castilla and Aragon, of the Holy Inquisition, or of the Indies among others. He established the capital in Madrid, a surprising decision as it was a town with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants at that time. He promoted interest in medicinal plants & the sale of spices from the new world such as the potato, tobacco, tomato or corn, which for a long time had been used as decoration.
  • Period: 1568 to 1571

    Rebellion of the Alpujarras

    With the conquest of Granada by the Catholic Kings, the Muslims were then forced to Christian baptism or to emigrate. Those who chose the first option became known as Moriscos. The measure provoked many reactions against the kings and the most violent was the protest in the Alpujarras. This was followed by the suppression of their language and customs. King Philip II issued an edict that forced Christianity on the children of the Moors, which caused an uprising a year later in the Alpujarras.
  • Period: 1568 to

    The Eighty Years War

    The Eighty Years' War (also known as Dutch Revolt or Dutch War of Independence) was a military conflict between the 17 provinces of the Netherlands and Spain, which then governed them, beginning in the reign of Philip II of Spain (1556-1598). The main causes of the war were Philip II's political and religious policies in the Spanish Low Countries (the Netherlands), particularly high taxation and persecution of Protestants. Peace was concluded in 1648 with the establishment of the Dutch Republic.
  • Jan 6, 1579

    The signment of the Union of Arras

    The signment of the Union of Arras
    The Union of Arras was signed on January 6 1579, during the Eighty Years' War (a conflict between the Spanish Crown and the Dutch provinces) between the Spanish Crown, represented by Governor-General Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, and other Spanish Netherlands provinces including Artois, Hainaut, town of Douay and some others, based on the Pacification of Ghent but retaining the Roman Catholic religion, loyalty to the king, & the privileges of the estates. As a reaction to the accommodation.
  • Jan 23, 1579

    The signment of the Union of Utrecht

    The signment of the Union of Utrecht
    A treaty was signed in Utrecht on January 23rd 1579, The Union of Utrecht. In this treaty, united action was agreed to in order to drive off the Spanish as well as several political issues. The treaty established a military league to resist the Spaniards and served as the foundation of the Dutch Republic and later kingdom. This Union became really significant, for it served as a constitution for the commonwealth of the United Netherlands for two centuries.
  • The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England

    The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England
    Spain’s "Invincible Armada" was defeated by an English naval force under Charles Howard and Francis Drake. After hours of fighting, a change in wind direction prompted the Spanish to break off from the battle and retreat toward the North Sea. The remnants of the Spanish Armada went back to Spain. English raids and support of the Dutch rebels led King Felipe II to plan England's conquest. A Spanish invasion fleet was completed by 1587, but Drake’s daring raid on the Armada’s supplies delayed it.
  • Period: to

    Baroque Art

    Baroque is a style of architecture, music, dance, paint, sculpture, and poetry that thrived from the early 17th century through the 1750s in the history of western art. Its characteristics include: Chiaroscuro, Tenebrism, Quadro Riportato, and Illusionism (Trompe l’Oeil and Quadratura). The Baroque period came after the Renaissance & Mannerism art periods and before the Rococo and Neoclassicism art periods. The Baroque style eschewed the harsh characteristics that the Protestant style portrayed.
  • Apollo and Daphne, by Bernini

    Apollo and Daphne, by Bernini
    When the famed Baroque sculptor Gian Lorenzo Bernini unveiled Apollo and Daphne, the marble work was really hailed. Not yet 30 years old, the sculptor had captured motion, transformation, sexual appetite, and terror better than any other artist working in stone before him.
    Almost 400 years later, Apollo and Daphne remains mesmerizing for both its formal mastery, and its disturbing, profoundly relevant subject matter: the ravenous pursuit of a woman, by a man who won’t take no for an answer.
  • St. Peter's square project by Bernini

    St. Peter's square project by Bernini
    In front of St. Peter’s Basilica is a piazza called St. Peter’s Square, which is an architectural marvel with much to appreciate that spreads over a large expanse of land, consisting of a line of Doric colonnades, beautiful statues, and other structures that make it one of the most incredible squares. This square is an ancient piazza at the Vatican City's core. It is believed that the structure was built where Peter the Apostle was killed. Both Basilica and Square were named after Peter.
  • The Spinners, by Velázquez

    The Spinners, by Velázquez
    One of the most famous of the paintings by Velázquez, and an example of his great mythological works, is The Spinners, also known as The Fable of Arachne. It was painted not for the king but for a private patron. The mythological story of the contest between the goddess Athena and the mortal Arachne who lived in the country of Lydia which had a legendary reputation for producing the most splendid textiles in the ancient world, was perhaps told best by the Roman poet Ovid in his Metamorphoses.
  • Period: to

    Neoclassical art

    The Neoclassical art is a widespread and influential movement in painting & the other visual arts that began in the 1760s and lasted until the 1850s. It generally took the form of an emphasis on austere linear design in the depiction of Classical themes and subject matter, using archaeologically correct settings and clothing. Neoclassicism in the art is an aesthetic attitude based on the art of Greece and Rome in antiquity, which invokes harmony, clarity, restraint, universality & idealism.
  • Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David

    Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David
    Visitors in Paris Salon were transfixed by one painting, Jacques-Louis David’s Oath of the Horatii. It depicts three men, brothers, saluting toward three swords held up by their father as the women behind him grieve—no one had ever seen a painting like it. Similar subjects had always been seen in the Salons before but the physicality and intense emotion of the painting was new and undeniable. The revolutionary painting changed French art but was David also calling for another kind of revolution.
  • Carlos IV of Spain & his family, by Goya

    Carlos IV of Spain & his family, by Goya
    Francisco De Goya was appointed as the Director of the Royal Academy in 1795 & the Primer Pintor de Cámara in 1799, the highest rank for a court painter in Spain. Goya painted Charles IV of Spain and His Family which depicts Charles IV of Spain and various members of his family where each member of the royal family is dressed in colourful and elaborate costumes and jewellery. The setting for the gathering is an artist’s studio with a shadowy Goya standing in the left-hand side of the painting.