History of Spain

  • Period: 250,000 BCE to 100,000 BCE

    Lower paleolithic

    It is the first part that spanned from 3 million years ago to 100,000 BC. C. Humans were nomads, they took refuge in caves to protect themselves from the cold and wild animals. The great contribution for humanity was the discovery of fire.
  • Period: 100,000 BCE to 35,000 BCE

    Middle Palaeolithic.

    It is the second stage that spanned from 100,000 BC. Until 35,000 a. The humans, in continuous evolution, reached the stage of Neanderthal man, which was characterized by their sophisticated intelligence and by improving the weapons they used for hunting.
  • Period: 35,000 BCE to 8000 BCE

    Superior paleolithic

    It is the third stage that spanned from 35,000 BC. Until 8,000 a. C. The greatest amount of evidence of artistic development was found (such as cave paintings and small clay or bone sculptures). The evolution of the human reached the phase of Cro-Magnon man, who had a greater capacity to communicate.
  • 8000 BCE

    Altamira cave painting

    Altamira cave painting
    The cave has about 150 paintings, generally polychrome and of great dynamism.
  • Period: 8000 BCE to 5500 BCE

    Mesolithic

    It represented a change in the diet and, so, in the use, which became smaller and more precise, the microliths, in accordance with the greater diversity of pieces of varied size that the new feeding and the new Levantine rock art built.
  • Period: 5500 BCE to 3000 BCE

    Neolithic

    The main center of neolithization was called the culture of Almeria, which in its last stages spread throughout the peninsula, everything seems to indicate that cattle ranching came before, and then agriculture.
  • 3000 BCE

    Cogul archaeological site (cave of the Moors)

    Cogul archaeological site (cave of the Moors)
    This painting is from Levantine rock art
  • Period: 3000 BCE to 2000 BCE

    Copper age

    At this stage, metallurgy plays a very important role (improvement of tools and other things), as agriculture also advances and the first pre-urban nuclei appear. They begin to create megalithic monuments such as dolmens and menhirs.
  • 2000 BCE

    Dolmen of the twins

    Dolmen of the twins
    It is so called because next to it there was another almost identical one and that today has completely disappeared.
  • Period: 2000 BCE to 700 BCE

    Bronze age

    The discovery of the smelting of metals creates new social relationships and new cultures, radically different from the previous ones. Society is hierarchical internally, and between towns. Control of mining regions is essential. Copper is not a ubiquitous material and its possession empowers others. The struggle to control the mining territory favors the appearance of aggressiveness and war, but also long-distance trade.
  • 1000 BCE

    Phoenicians

    Phoenicians
    The Phoenicians came to the peninsula interested in the Huelva mines that were unexploited and also for the iron from the southeast of the peninsula.
    These were from Phenicia.
  • 600 BCE

    The greeks

    The greeks
    The Greeks came to the peninsula to expand their trade that they had set up on all or almost all the coasts of the Mediterranean.
  • 238 BCE

    The Carthaginians

    The Carthaginians
    The Carthaginians had almost the same intentions as the Greeks, but the Carthaginians began to marry the princesses of the cities on the Mediterranean coasts.
  • Period: 218 BCE to 197 BCE

    The conquest of the Romans over the Carthaginian. The first phase

    they conquered the south and east of the peninsula, highlighting Carthage Nova (209 BC) and Gades (202 BC). These cities had already had colonizing peoples (Phoenicians and Greeks), and now the Romans. I coincide with the Second Punic War.
  • Period: 197 BCE to 154 BCE

    The conquest of the Romans over the Carthaginian. The second phase

    The Romans reached the Ebro river, the eastern plateau and the southwest. The administrative organization of Hispania begins with the creation of two provinces: Citerior, to the north and Ulterior, to the south.
  • Period: 154 BCE to 29 BCE

    The conquest of the Romans over the Carthaginian. The third phase

    In this phase, it can be divided into 3 crucial moments, resistance movement; Lusitanian wars; Celtiberian warfare.
  • Period: 29 BCE to 19 BCE

    The conquest of the Romans over the Carthaginian. The fourth phase

    This last phase corresponds to the Cantabrian-Asturian wars, where the Romans had to use themselves thoroughly to subdue the Cantabrians and Asturians.
  • 510

    Visigothics

    Visigothics
    They entered through the south of France, which they had already conquered, and took over 50% of the peninsula (northeast, southwest and center of the peninsula).
  • Period: 711 to 1492

    Al-Andalus

    Al-Andalus was the Muslim Andalusia, in 711 the Muslims entered the peninsula through the Strait of Gibraltar and began to conquer the entire peninsula, except the Cantabrian and Basque area.
    The kingdom of Asturias eventually began to reconquer its lost areas, until other kingdoms reappeared such as the Kingdom of Pamplona, ​​the Kingdom of Castile, the Kingdom of Portugal, etc.
    Until the Mullahs were so cornered that they only remained in the kingdom of Granada in 1492 that they were defeated.
  • Oct 12, 1492

    Discovery of America

    Discovery of America
    They were a group of Spaniards, led by Cristobal Colon, they discovered it when they thought that India would be reached faster by the Atlantic Ocean, but what they did not know is that there was more land, later on.
  • Period: to

    The Bourbons

    The history of the Bourbons in our country is turbulent and has instability as a common thread. Sometimes direct responsibility of the Crown, other times imposed by troubled Europe. Juan Carlos was not the first ‘peacemaker’ Bourbon, although he was the one who came closest to his goal, partly thanks to the time in which he reigned and the historical context it provided.
  • Period: to

    Old regime

    Were the superstructure that, with some innovations, but above all through the adaptation and transformation of the pre-existing political, social and economic institutions and practices in the different Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula in the late Middle Ages, presided over the historical period that coincides with broad features with the Modern Age: from the Catholic Monarchs to the Liberal Revolution and which was characterized by the characteristics of the Old Regime.
  • Period: to

    First World War

    Spain's neutrality in World War I allowed it to become a supplier of material for the contenders, which caused an economic bubble during the years of the war. The Rif War, the outbreak of the Spanish flu in Spain and elsewhere, along with a major economic slowdown in the postwar period, hit Spain particularly hard, and the country was in crisis. As an attempt to overcome this situation, King Alfonso XIII decided to support the dictatorship of General Miguel Primo de Rivera.
  • Period: to

    The second republic

    The electoral victory of the republicans in the cities brought with it the fall of the monarchy. The regime change was carried out without bloodshed on April 14, 1931, after the proclamation of the Republic in Madrid, Barcelona and other Spanish capitals. Convinced that the municipal elections had been a national demonstration against the monarchy, the Count of Romanones, Minister of State, recommended that the king leave Spain and negotiated with revolutionary committee transfer of government
  • Period: to

    Civil war

    The Spanish Civil War occurred between the years 1936 to 1939, caused by a climate of internal turmoil due to the economic, political and social situation of the country.
    There is a coup by General Primo de Rivera, in which measures such as the suspension of the Constitution of 1876, end of parliament, etc. are given, which are not well received even by his party who force him to resign. dictator Primo de Rivera.
  • Period: to

    The dictatorship of Francisco Franco

    During the Franco regime, Spain actively sought the return of Gibraltar by the United Kingdom, and gained some support for its cause at the United Nations. During the 1960s, Spain began to impose restrictions on Gibraltar, culminating in the closure of the border in 1969. The last years of the Franco regime saw some economic and political liberalization, the so-called Spanish miracle, including the birth of a tourist industry.
  • Period: to

    Transition to democracy

    The Spanish transition to democracy marks a new era in which Spain went from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a democratic state of law. The transition is often said to have begun with the death of Franco on November 20, 1975, while its completion is marked by the electoral victory of the PSOE on October 28, 1982. Officially, the coup d'état failed thanks to the intervention of the King Juan Carlos I.
  • ETA

    ETA
    Two ETA terrorist attacks caused a huge social upheaval: on June 19 the Hipercor attack in Barcelona, ​​the organization's largest massacre, in which it murders 21 civilians in a shopping center, and on December 11 the attack against the house-barracks in Zaragoza, in which 5 children and 6 adults lose their lives.
  • The Barcelona olympic games

    The Barcelona olympic games
  • The war in Afghanistan

    The war in Afghanistan
  • Anti-tobacco law

    Anti-tobacco law
  • Period: to

    Spanish economic crisis

    The Spanish economic crisis began in 2008 and, according to data from the (INE), concluded in 2014. However, the Spanish economy has taken many more years to recover the levels prior to the crisis of some of the most important variables such as unemployment. In addition, the exit from the crisis has occurred at the cost of a growth in inequality. This crisis is part of the so-called Great Recession that affected most of the world's countries, especially developed countries.