Period: Jan 1, 800 to Jan 1, 1500
Rise and fall of Khmer Epire
Jan 1, 802
Khmer Empire is founded802 CE- 835 CE
Jayavarman II founded the Khmer empire in Cambodia. His reign lasted 802 CE- 835 CE. He is known as 'The King of the Khmer Empire'. This was the beginning of the empire.
Jayavarman II demanded Canbodia's independence, and established four capitals for his kingdom. He used wars, alliances and marriages to stregnthen and further expand his new empire,
He built many temples, including religious ones. He introduced Hinduism, and dedicated many temples to Hindu Gods, such as Vishnu.
Jan 1, 835
Jayavarman II's death835 CE circa.
This marked the end of the founder's reign. He was taken over by his son, Jayavarman III, who ruled until 877 CE.
After his death, Indravarman I took over, and ruled 877- 889 CE. Indravarman peacefully reigned without wars, and was recognised as a great king for his extensive and impressive public buildings. Indravarman I created the first irrigation network for the rice fields, using a large resevior he built and a complex system of canals and channels. He built many shrines.
Jan 1, 889
Yasovarman I's reign begins889- 900 CE circa.
Yasovarman I succeded his father, Indravarman I, after his death. He built hundreds of monasteries, and finished building the large resevior his father started.Yasovarman is remembered for moving the capital to Yasodharapura, the first city of Angkor, were it remained for 600 years. He constructed another resevoir, bigger than any before, in the area near his capital. He died in 910 CE circa. of leprosy, and was succeeded by his oldest son Harshavarman I.
Jan 1, 910
Instability in Angkor910 CE
Harshavarman I and Ishanavarman I were brothers, and sons of Yasovarman. Harshavarman I was the oldest, and reigned over the new capital 910- 923 CE. His brother Ishanavarman took over, and reigned until his death in 928 CE. During both of their reign, they were both involved with a power struggle with their uncle, Jayavaman IV, who wanted to claim the throne due to no clear rules for succession. He left Yasodharapura, and built his own rival capital 100 km away, at Kho Ker, in 921 CE.
Apr 30, 928
Jayavarman IV takes control928 - 941CE
Due to his nephews having no heirs, Jayavarman IV became king. Yasodharapura was no longer the capital and briefly abandoned , and Kho Ker was remaned to Chok Gargyar. He built many amazing temples, and his magnificent capital only took 20 years to build, despite such complexity. In order to pay for such a creation, the king commanded taxes of goods be paid by amost everyone. His succession was not peaceful, as his son, Harshavarman II, reigned only for 3 years (until 944 CE).
Jan 1, 944
Rajendravarman II944 -968 CE
Rajendravarman II brutally killed and took over the throne from Harshavarman II, his cousin. Rajendravarman returned the royal palace to Yasoharapura, and commenced building of Banteay Srei, a temple made of pink ornate sandstone dedicated to Hindu god Shiva, as well as many other temples in the Angkor area, including some Buddhist ones. He lead the first war with the Champa, a state to the east, in 946 CE, which he won. Rajendravarman II was succeded by his 10 year old son.
Jan 1, 968
Jayavarman V968- 1001 CE
Jayavarman ascended to the throne at age 10. He studied under a very knowledgeable scholar, Yajnavaraha. Under his rule, aristocratic families , scholars, artists and other elites domiated most of his royal court, and were most often written about in temple inscriptions. He brought Buddhism to popularity under his reign. Buddha's teachings were about tolerance, which created more equality for women under his rule. Jayavarman V had a peaceful, prosperous and overall positive rule.
Jan 1, 1001
Angkor falls into chaos1001 - 1010 CE
After Jayavarman V's death in 1001 CE, the Khmer empire fell into a decade of disarray. Induvidual kings all across Cambodia, went to war with each other, such as Udayadityavarman I, his heir Jayaviravarman, and Suryavarman I.
Jan 1, 1010
Suryavarman I settles conflict in Cambodia1010 -1050 CE
Suryavarman I comes to power, and stops fighting within the empire. He joins forces with the Chola dynasty of southern India, and they fight in a war against the Tambralinga empire, which they win. He expaned the Khmer empire, and built the second Angkor water resevior. He was succeded by his sons, Udayadityavarman II, who died 1066 CE circa., and Harshavarman III, who ruled 1066- 1080 CE. They both fought back invasions from the Champa whilst they were alive.
Jan 1, 1080
Jayavarman VI usurps the rightful king1080- 1107 CE
Jayavarman VI was not the heir of Harshavarman III, and caused dispute due to his rise to power. Those who remained loyal to the Harshavarman III line and his actual son, Nripatindravarman, did try to prevent the vassal's unfair reign. Jayavarman VI was succeeded by his older brother, Dharanindravarman I from his death in 1107 CE, who ruled until 1113 CE. Some inscriptures say that Nripatindravarman ruled along side his uncles until Suryavarman II's reign.
Jan 1, 1113
Suryavarman II becomes king1113 - 1150 CE circa.
Suryavarman II brought stability to the chaotic Khmer Empire. He united the kingdom internally. He greatly expanded his kingdom, by conquering neighbouring countries. Suryavarman II also went to war against the Dai Viets and Chams, but these wars were mostly unsecessful. He is largely known for building Ankor Wat, the largest religious temple ever, which he started as soon as he was king, and took 37 years. He also strengthened the relation with China, creating an embassy.
Jan 1, 1150
Suryavarman II's death1150 CE
Dharanindravarman II was the successor of Suryavarman, and ruled until 1160 CE. Yasovarman II reigned after him, until he was overthrown by mandarin Tribhuvanadityavarman in 1166 CE, and later assassinated. Tribhuvanadityavarman was a chinese bureaucrat who took control from 1166 - 1177 CE. The Chams invaded the Khmer empire in 1177, sacking the capital, stealing land and killing the usurper, Tribhuvanadityavarman .
Jan 1, 1181
Jayavarman VII- The greatest King1181- 1218CE
Jayavarman VII was the son of Dharanindravarman II. He was often thought of as the greatest king of he Khmer empire, for his amazing temples and great war skills, which allowed him to conquer more land than ever before. He built many temples and buildings, including Ta Prohm and Angkor Thom, which was his new capital. Jayavarman VII led a successful attack against the Chams in 1190, reclaiming back all of the land lost. He made Buddhism the state religion, and lived until he was 92.
Jan 1, 1218
Jayavarman VII's death- beginning of the end of the Khmer Epire1218 CE
Indravarman II reigned after Jayavarman VII, until 1243 CE. After him, Jayavarman VIII reigned until 1295. Jayavarman VIII's reign brought even more chaos to the already breaking Khmer Empire.
Jan 1, 1243
Jayavarman VIII's reign begins1243- 1295 CE
Jayavarman VIII took over after Indravarman II, and reigned until he abdicated in 1295. Jayavarman VIII in 1281 captured Mongol emisarries from Champa, causing Mongol forces under Kublai Khan to attack the crumbling Angkor empire, until Jayavarman VIII bought peace. Angkor also suffered a massive war from the new Thai kingdom Sukhothai. Jayavarman was a Shiavite, meaning he wanted to return to Hinduism, whilst defacing Buddhist temples and sculptures, creating religious conflict.
Jan 1, 1295
Indravarman III and the end of the Khmer Classical Period1295- 1308 CE
Indravarman III (Srindravarman) took over after Jayavarman VIII. The last recorded temple ever built (Mangalartha) in the Khmer Empire was started by Jayavarman VIII and finished by Indravarman III. Indravarman was a follower of Theravada Buddhism, and he made it the state religion, but it was too late, as most temples had already been defaced. His successor was Indrajayavarman (1308-1327). This was the last Sanskrit (Hindu scripture language) recording.
Jan 1, 1352
Ayutthaya invasion of Angkor1352-1357 CE
An invasion of the shrinking Khmer empire by the north-western kingdom of Ayutthaya, led by Uthong, the Thai king. He placed one of his own sons on the Angkorian throne, but the Khmers were able to reclaim Yasodharapura in 1357 CE. The Khmer Empire managed to survive this attack, but was still weakened by it.
Jan 1, 1393
2nd Ayutthaya invadsion1392 CE
Ramesuan led the Ayutthaya kingdom to another war, which they won, in response to raids from the Khmer empire. This weakened the struggling empire further.
Jan 1, 1431
The Empire finally falls1431 CE
Due to pressures from religon, society, weather, temperature, crumbling infrastructure, internal conflicts and increasing threat from the rival kingdom of Ayutthya, the Khmer rulers and people abandoned Angkor, including Yasodharapura and Angkor Thom. The Khmer Empire had shrunk largely, forcing the people to move further south, close to the sea. A new capital was created, Phnom Penh, where most had to move to. Angkor Wat was not completely abandoned, as it remained a buddhist temple.