History of Speical Education

By Place
  • Compulsory Education Law

    Massachusetts is the first state to pass a compulsory education law--The law included mandatory attendance for children between the ages of eight and fourteen for at least three months out of each year, of these twelve weeks at least six had to be consecutive.
  • The White House Conference of 1910

    http://www.pcya.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/History%20of%20US%20Children's%20Policy%20(Yarrow).pdfThe focus of the White House Conference of 1910 was on children with disabilities. The first conference "focused on the harmful effects of institutionalizing dependent and neglected children, and urged the promotion of child well-being within families and by private charities, rather than by government" (Yarrow, 2009[PYCA.org]).
  • Compulsory Education Law in all states

    By 1918 compulsory education laws were in place in all states but often excluded children with disabilities from public education (Yell, 2012).
  • Advocacy Groups

    http://nichcy.org/families-community/help/parentgroupsOver the year, people started coming together to support one another and advocate for chidren with disabilities. In 1933 the first advocay group was formed--The Cuyohoga County Ohio Council for Retarded Children. From here, advocacy groups bloomed.
  • Period: to

    Civil Rights Movement

    Civil rights movement changes society to include equal opportunities for all.

    The BROWN case affected numerous aspects of educational law as it addressed the importance of education in our society and equal opportunities to education despite disabilities (Yell, 2012).
  • Teacher Training

    First federal funding for teachers of children with mental retardation--Education of Mentally Retarded Children Act of 1958.
  • The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)

    ESEA law is the first time federal funding was provided to states for educating the disadvantaged.
  • The Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA)

    EHA provides funding for higher education "to devlop programs to train teachers of students with disabilities" (Yell, 2012, p.52).

    http://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/journals/article/index.xml?journalid=57&articleid=338&sectionid=2259The case was key in sparking policy that parents have specific rights to their child's education.

    [outreach.umf.maine.edu/files/2009/10/millsvboardofed.pdf](outreach.umf.maine.edu/files/2009/10/millsvboardofed.pdf)In conjunction with the Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens v. Pennsylvania (1972) case, the MILLS case fought for rights of out-of-school students with disabilities.
  • Section 504--P.L. 93-112

    Section 504 prohibits discrimination against a person with a disabilitiy.
  • The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA)--P.L. 94-142

    EAHCA addresses educational rights and fedral financial incentives. EAHCA provides a free appropriate public education to students in the least restrictive environment.
  • Education of the Handicapped Amendments-P.L. 99-457

    P.L. 99-457 requires states to develop and implement infant and toddler (early) intervention programs. The law is later aquired by the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA).
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)--P.L. 101-476

    http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/edlite-FAPE504.htmlhttp://idea.ed.gov/IDEA 1990 is a modifaction and renaming of EAHCA. IDEA includes a change in EAHCA verbage. The law also expands the disability categories covered by IDEA. Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) is a mandate of IDEA.
  • Americans with DIsabilities Act (ADA)-P.L. 101-336

    http://www.ada.gov/ADA "mandates protections for persons with disabilities against discrimination" (Yell, 2012) in the public and private sectors.
  • IDEA Amendment--P.L. 105-17

    http://www.isbe.state.il.us/spec-ed/html/idea.htmIDEA was reauthorized in 1997. Much needed revisions were made during the reauthorization.
  • No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)

    http://www2.ed.gov/nclb/landing.jhtmlNCLB is a reauthorization of ESEA and was intended to increase achievement of students in public schools. NCLB holds states accountable for measuring achievement. Additionally, NCLB requires the inclusion of students with disabilities in assessment and accountability data.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA, 2004)--P.L. 108-446

    http://idea.ed.gov/IDEA, 2004 improvements incorporates NCLB and includes changes addressing: teacher qualifications, Individual Education Program (IEP), and to intervention (RTI).
  • Current News in Special Education