History of Special Education and Inclusive Education Timeline

Timeline created by leiregomez
In History
  • Period: to

    Developments in Special and Inclusive Education

    All events fall within these dates
  • American School for the Deaf

    American School for the Deaf
    The American School for the Deaf was founded in Hartford, Connecticut, as the first school for children with disabilities in the country. The institution serves as an example and resource to educators nationwide on how to be properly inclusive through trainings and exemplary curriculums. Through their work, the faculty of this school helped found a college for students with disabilities in Washington, D.C..
  • Columbia Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb

    Columbia Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb
    This was the first higher-education institution founded for people with disabilities in the world. The Columbia Institution's founding was a great step forward in the advancement of opportunities for people with disabilities. In 1864, the term "dumb" was unfortunately used to label those with any mental disabilities or those with visual/hearing impairment.
  • Pennsylvania Association of Retarded Children (PARC) . Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

    Pennsylvania Association of Retarded Children (PARC) . Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
    This court case was brought forth by the PARC to defend the rights of students with mental retardation of receiving an adequate public education. The judge eventually ruled in favor of the Association and children with mental retardation were not allowed to be excluded by the state in academic settings. This marks a precedent for any doubt of children with disabilities being deserving of equal education.
  • 1st Center for Independent Living Founded

    1st Center for Independent Living Founded
    Ed Roberts, an activist, was successful in opening the first Center for Independent Living in the United States. This facility provided services for people with disabilities with the goal to allow them to live in the community comfortably. This meant individuals with disabilities were given the adequate resources and aid to live away from nursing homes and hospitals, and lead more independent lives. Pictured is Ed Roberts.
  • Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act

    Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act
    This act protected those with disabilities from discrimination. These protections applied to all public programs, including public schools. For students with disabilities, this ensured they'd have access to the same resources and opportunities than people without disabilities. Section 504 was for students that did not meet the requirements for IEPs, but could benefit from accommodations in academic settings.
  • Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA)

    Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA)
    This act required that all children with disabilities were entitled to "free and appropriate education," meaning students were to be provided with accommodations and services necessary for success. The Act also required IEPs for all students, and was the beginning for the use of the term Least Restrictive Environment in education. From this moment on, one of the principal goals of inclusion would be to keep students with disabilities with their non-disabled peers as much as possible.
  • Disability Rights Florida

    Disability Rights Florida
    Disability Rights Florida is an organization advocating for the rights of people with disabilities statewide. Their work includes protecting the rights of children with disabilities in academic settings as well. The organization is still active and in present time is ensuring children with disabilities are receiving accommodations in Least Restrictive Environments during remote sessions as well.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
    Following the Rehabilitation Act, the ADA protected the rights of people with disabilities in the private sector as well. This meant that individuals with disabilities could not be discriminated by privately owned organizations in terms of employment, volunteering, or in education. At this time, AIDS were classified to be a disability as well, granting protection of rights for millions of people.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)

    Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)
    This Act is one of the pillars for inclusive education today. Under IDEA, guardians and students involved in Special Education Services are granted privacy amongst other developments. The Least Restrictive Environment guidelines are now made into a requirement, rather than a goal, and transition plans are also required. This shows the commitment of the federal government to make society and other federal systems inclusive and accessible.
  • No Child Left Behind Act

    No Child Left Behind Act
    The No Child Left Behind Act was an initiative enacted by the federal government to increase inclusion and make districts and educators accountable for decreasing the achievement gap between students through standardized testing. Although the Act did increase accommodations and support for students with disabilities, the focus on standardized testing made many districts turn to focus on the guidelines that students were being tested on, and the quality of education did somewhat decrease.
  • Florida Statute 1003.57

    Florida Statute 1003.57
    This statute, enacted in 2002, defines the term "inclusion" for educational settings and sets guidelines for school districts to provide students with disabilities adequate services. The term "inclusion" focuses on the LRE principle with the goal to keep as many students with disabilities in their general education classrooms. The statute also acknowledges children with disabilities to be just as valuable as their non-disabled peers and protects their rights to education.
  • Every Student Succeeds Act

    Every Student Succeeds Act
    ESSA succeeded the NCLB Act, and it seeks to lessen the impact of standardized testing on performance scores, while giving teachers more leeway in planning their curricula based on their own students' needs. When students must take standardized assessments, under this act they must be provided with the necessary accommodations. This law brings in more support for early intervention programs as well.