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History of Special Education and Inclusive Education

  • Brown versus Board of Education in 1954

    Brown versus Board of Education in 1954
    The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation in public schools violated the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. The 1954 decision declared that separate educational facilities for African American and white students were unequal.
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act
    This is the nation's national education law and shows a longstanding commitment to equal opportunity for all students. This authorizes state-run programs for eligible schools and districts eager to raise the academic achievement of struggling learners and the complex challenges that students who live with disability, mobility problems, learning difficulties, or who need to learn English.
  • PARC vs Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

    PARC vs Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
    The Arc of Pennsylvania, over a law that gave public schools the authority to deny a free education to children who had reached the age of 8, yet had not reached the mental age of 5. This was the first major legal case to provide equality to students with disabilities. The argument whether having an intellectual disability or not, could benefit from any type of free education.
  • Mills vs Board of Education

    Mills vs Board of Education
    Extended the right to special education to children of all disabilities. The court ruled that students with disabilities must be given a public education even if the students are unable to pay for the cost of the education. All children entitled to free public education.
  • The Education For All Handicapped Children Act

    The Education For All Handicapped Children Act
    The law requires all schools receiving federal funding to provide for handicapped students by accommodating their special needs and providing them with fair and equal access to education. This act required all public schools accepting federal funds to provide equal access to education and one free meal a day for children with physical and mental disabilities.
  • Education of the Handicapped Act

    Education of the Handicapped Act
    Extends free and appropriate education to children with disabilities establishes early intervention for infants/ toddlers with disabilities. This law has been strengthened and expanded over the years.Funds are granted to states with special education programs that comply with federal guidelines. This law goes on to become IDEA
  • Honig vs Doe

    Honig vs Doe
    Schools cannot expel students for behaviors related to their disability. That a California school board had violated the Education for All Handicapped Children Act when it indefinitely suspended a student for violent and disruptive behavior that was related to his disability. In addition, the court affirmed that the state must provide services directly too students with disabilities when local school boards fail to do so.
  • National Center for Learning Disabilities

    National Center for Learning Disabilities
    Foundation for Children with Learning Disabilities expanded its mission and changed its name to the National Center for Learning Disabilities.The mission was to improve the lives of all people with learning and attention issues. Their mission envisions a society in which every individual possesses the academic, social and emotional skills needed to succeed in life, at work and in school.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    Americans with Disabilities Act
    Prohibits discrimination in the private sector and protects equal employments opportunities for people with disabilities, includes AIDS as a disability. Also covered employers to provide reasonable accommodations to employees with disabilities, and accessibility requirements on public accommodations.
  • IDEA

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Included Individualized Educational Plans, enhanced educational accountability, provided standards when disciplining children with disabilities.
  • Cedar Rapids vs Garret F

    Cedar Rapids vs Garret F
    Students must receive the supplemental services needed to attend school. In which the Court ruled that the related services in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) required public school districts to fund "continuous, one-on-one nursing care for disabled children" despite arguments from the school district concerning the costs of the services."
  • No Child Left Behind Act

    No Child Left Behind Act
    Increases accountability and flexibility in use of federal funds, offers school choice options, implements early reading interventions. To receive federal school funding, the states had to give these assessments to all students. Each state developed its own standards because it did not assert a national standard.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) (P.L. 108-446)

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement  Act (IDEIA)  (P.L. 108-446)
    Allows RTI model to determine presence of a learning disability and no longer requires use of the severe discrepancy model, increases funding to early intervention services for students who do not require special education, eliminates IEP short-term objectives for some students, raises special education licensure standards, adopts polices to prevent over-representation of minority students in special education
  • Every Student Succeeds Act

    Every Student Succeeds Act
    This law modified but did not eliminate provisions relating to the periodic standardized tests given to students. Like the No Child Left Behind Act, ESSA is a reauthorization of the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which established the federal government's expanded role in public education.