History of Special Education and Inclusive Education

  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act
    Provided low income families access to high quality education programs, as well as free or reduced lunches.
    This also applies to children who need additional help.
  • PARC v. Commonwealth Pennsylvania

    PARC v. Commonwealth Pennsylvania
    Challenged the morality of excluding individuals with mental retardation from public education. The state was not allowed to deny any mentally retarded child access to free public programs.
  • Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia

    Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia
    This suit required the state to provide alternative education services to those with exceptional needs. Schools were asked to explain their curricula, objectives, teacher qualifications, and supplemental services needed.
  • Vocational Rehabilitation Act

    Vocational Rehabilitation Act
    Defined handicapped person, as any person who has a physical or mental impairment which limits one or more of such person major life activities. Appropriate education in which it is designed to meet the individuals educational needs. Evaluation and placement procedures established to provide these services. Prohibited discrimination against students with disabilities in federally funded programs.
  • Educational Amendments Act

    Educational Amendments Act
    Granted federal funds to states for providing programs for the exceptional learners. Provided the first federal funding of state for students who are gifted or talented. Granted students and families the fight to begin process of special education placements.

    Introduced Mainstreaming Law or least restrictive environment which is mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. This required Individualized Education Plans. Required states to provide a free and appropriate public education for children with disabilities.timetoast
  • Honig v. Doe

    Honig v. Doe
    A California school board had violated the EAHCA when it suspended a student for violent and disruptive behavior that was related to his disability. The end result concluded that individuals with emotional or behavioral disorders who have academic and social problems benefited from this because schools could not expel students for behaviors related to their disabilities.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    Americans with Disabilities Act
    ADA Prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in the private sector. ADA also protects equal opportunity to employment and public services, and accommodations. AIDS was in included with the disabilities.
  • IDEA

    IDEA replaced (EAHCA). Establishing “people-first” language when referring to people with disabilities. The ADA also added two new categories of disability, autism and traumatic brain injury.
  • IDEA

    All students with disabilities can continue to receive services, if they have been expelled from school. Requires schools to assume greater responsibility for ensuring that students with disabilities have access to the general education curriculum, as well as students with disabilities are able to take part in statewide and districtwide assessments. Encouraged proactive behavior management plan to be included in the student’s IEP if a student with disabilities has behavior problems.

    Introduced the response-to-intervention (RTI) model to determine whether a child has a specific learning disability. IDEIA also
    increased federal funds to provide early intervention services to students who do not need special education or related services.
    Adopted policies designed to prevent discrimination of students in special education by race and ethnicity.
  • Winkelman v. Parma City school district

    Winkelman v. Parma City school district
    Jacob Winkelman, a six-year old autistic child from Parma whom sparked the question whether parents could represent the interests of their special needs child in court without being represented by an attorney. It was a major victory for the special education, the Supreme Court decided that parents can pursue IDEA claims on their behalf, independent of their childs rights.