History of Special Education and Inclusive Education

  • American School for the Deaf

    American School for the Deaf
    The first federal aid to special education in the United States. The school originally only had seven students enrolled during its opening. Provided schooling for the deaf and created a new standardized language (American Sign Language). It's still operating and serves as an example of special education to this day.
  • Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)

    Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)
    Organized by a group of educators attending the summer session at Teachers College, Columbia University, and their faculty members. This council informs parents, teachers, and administration about the education of individuals with disabilities. It is dedicated to helping improve the education for all disabled people by advocating policies, educating the public, and setting professional standards. https://exceptionalchildren.org/about-us
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    Ruled that separate schools for black and white children are unequal and unconstitutional. The decision led the way to a growing understanding that all people, regardless of race, gender, or disability, have a right to public education. Because of the decision, parents with children with disabilities began bringing lawsuits against their school districts for segregating children with disabilities.
  • Education for All Handicapped Children Act

    Education for All Handicapped Children Act
    This act required all public schools that accepted federal funds to provide equal access to education and one free meal a day for children with physical and mental disabilities. Public schools were required to evaluate children with disabilities and create an educational plan with parent input that would emulate as closely as possible the educational experience of non-disabled students. The would later be changed to the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA).
  • IDEA: (LRE) Least Restrictive Environment

    IDEA: (LRE) Least Restrictive Environment
    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), focused on the least restrictive environments for students with disabilities. This shifted the focus on providing more inclusive classrooms for students with disabilities. This act serves so that students have the opportunity to be educated with non-disabled peers, to the greatest extent appropriate.
  • Board of Education v. Rowley

    Board of Education v. Rowley
    This is the first special education case to land in the U.S Supreme court. The case ruled that students who qualified for special education services must have access to public school programs that meet their educational needs. In addition, it ruled that the program must be supported by services that enable students to benefit from instruction.
  • Regular Education Initiative (REI)

    Regular Education Initiative (REI)
    A movement during the 1980s to try and correct the limitations of IDEA by eliminating separate special education programs and creating one system of general education in which students with disabilities were to be supported within general education classrooms. One of the first proposals to mainstreaming before any major laws were passed. Madeleine Will aspired to eliminate the divide between general and special education.
  • American's with Disabilities Act (ADA)

    American's with Disabilities Act (ADA)
    Law passed in 1990 that protects the rights of people with disabilities. The law required the local, state, and federal governments to be accessible to all individuals with disabilities. In addition, It mandated access to public transportation, communication, and other areas of public life. ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rgwstMsPvd4 )
  • No Child Left Behind

    No Child Left Behind
    A law aimed at improving public primary and secondary schools, and thus student performance. This Act increases the role of the federal government in guaranteeing the quality of public education for all children in the United States. It put an emphasis on increased funding, and new measures to hold schools accountable for their students' progress and in the role of standardized testing.
  • Assistive Technology Act (A.T)

    Assistive Technology Act (A.T)
    This act helped promote awareness and ensures that students with disabilities have the access to assistive technology (A.T). This technology provides students with the help they need in their education, employment, and lives overall. In addition, the act helps increase awareness of assistive technology.