History of Management

By Erika14
  • Taylor' Father of Management

    Taylor studied his workers and focused on the process in which things were done. He believed that there was a "best way to do a job" and he wanted to find it. This led him to set standards and rules to follow to get the job done. It also allowed for workers to be paid based on performance, which is still used in factories today (George, Jones, 2014).
  • Mary Parker Follett

    She had concerns that Fayol was not paying enough attention to the workers. She led the way for Behavioral Management. Managers were there to motivate and help employees perform at higher levels and to reach the company goals( George, Jones, 2014).
  • Ford

    Henry Ford created the moving conveyor belt and implimented the assembly line. This revolutionized factories and created efficient workers that could turn out large amounts of products(George, Jones, 2014).
  • Henri Fayol

    Developed a management process based off of 14 principals in 1916. These principals were to increase the efficiency of the work place and the management there. He focused on the manager as the one to bring the work place together. His principals are still in use today such as the Division of Labor and the idea of tenure (Suman, 2010).
  • Max Weber Theory of Bureaucracy

    Created to help Germany during their industrial revolution Weber focused on a system on making the organization and administration become efficient and effective. He had 5 principles to help companies, however there is a fine line and management can easily go over board and become inefficient (George, Jones 2014).
  • Hawthorne Study

    Hawthorne Electric company wanted to study the effects of work settings on work performance, however they found that it was the attention from the researchers that affected work the most. This led to the human relations movement and training managers to work with their subordinates in a cooperative manner to improve productivity(George, Jones, 2014).
  • Norris-Laguardia Act

    This law protected employees from contracts stating that they weren't allowed to join labor unions(US Government).
  • Hierarchy of Needs

    Maslow publishes his book Motication and Personality. Gives organizations a framework for gaining employees' commitment. Emoloyees have basic needs and once those are met they can become self actualizing. Its also helps employers find effective motivators(George, Jones, 2014).
  • Two Factor Theory

    Theorized by Frederick Herzberg. He found that there are factors in the work place that premote motivation and seperate factors that cause dissatisfaction. His theory concentrates on the importance of motivating emplyees(Herzberg, Mausner, Snyderman, 1959).
  • SWOT

    Framework that identifies Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. Firms obtain competitive advantages by finding their strengths and exploiting their competitors weaknesses. Basically the company has to look into themselves and competitors to figure out how to improve themselves and to go beyond their competitors( Pettigrew, Thomas, Whittington, 2006).
  • Theory X and Theory Y

    Theory X is a negative mind set about workers that leads to micromanaging and close supervision. Theory Y is a positive mindset where the manager is there to encourage employees to reach goals and have initiative. These theories changed how management saw employees and how they treated them (George, Jones, 2014).
  • Contingency Theory

    “There is no one best way to organize”. Managers have to be able to choose depending on environment within and outside of the organization. They have to be flexible and pay attention to all aspects of the company and its workers( George, Jones, 2014).
  • Civil Rights Act

    This prohibited discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It gave all job seekers equal ground and made it so that it was suppose to be based on ablilities(US Government).
  • Managerial Grid

    Robert Blake and Jane Mouton create a management model that is two dimentional and has a simplicity about it that is easy to use. The grid contains two axis; X axis contains "Concern for People" and Y axis "Concerns for task". These are the key behaviors a manager should have to create the perfect work enviornment(Pettigrew, Thomas, Whittington, 2006).
  • Expectancy Theory

    Created by Victor Vroom it utilizes the 3 major factors of a person's motivation; instrumentality, expectancy, and valence. It works off the idea that motivation is high when people believe high efforts are needed to obtain high performance, which will lead to high outcomes(George, Jones, 2014).
  • OSHA

    In the 1960’s work related accidents went up by 20%. President Richard Nixon signed the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, which later created OSHA. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration(OSHA) was established by Congress. The purpose of OSHA was to create standards and enforce work safety. Today there are many OSHA regulations in place to protect workers(US Governement).
  • Leader-Member Exchange

    Fred Fiedler’s first situational characteristic he describes. It deals with the extent the employees like, trust, and are loyal to their managers. The more loyal the employees the more willing they are to trust and follow in different situations(George, Jones, 2014)
  • ADA

    Americans with Disabilities Act was enacted by congress. It is an aray of different civil right laws that prohibit discrimination based on disabilities. It covers both physical and mental disabilities(US Government).
  • Internet and Technology

    Internet becomes big and companies can start to use it to run their businesses. Managers can use applications to design, produce, and distribute services quicker and more efficient(George, Jones, 2014).
  • Google

    Operated on motto, "Don't be Evil" the moral code guides employees. Employees are mostly accountable for themselves, they operate under the 70-20-10 rule. 70% of time on current assignment, 20% on related projects, and 10% on new projects of any area. This gives employees the ability to set their own goals while maintaining company goals and be imaginative in progressing the company(Google).