History of Intelligence Testing

  • Alfred Binet's beginning

    Alfred Binet's beginning
    French government asks Alfred Binet to help decide which students were most likely to experience difficulty or succeed in schools.
  • Development of Binet-Simon Scale

    Development of Binet-Simon Scale
    The Binet-Simon Intelligence Test was made of 30 sub-tests that were designed to test many mental capabilities, and was scored by way of "mental age". For instance, if someone scored as well as an average 14 year old, then they would have a mental age of 14.
  • Terman relies on Stern's formula

    Terman relies on Stern's formula
    In 1912 Wilhelm Stern devloped a formula which expressed a relation between mental age and chronological age:
    IQ = mental age x 100/chronological age (the formula works fairly well for children, but not for adults). Terman relied on this formula to arrive at an IQ score.
  • Terman's adapted test for the United States

    Terman's adapted test for the United States
    Stanford University psychologist Lewis Terman, using Binet's original test, revised/adapted the test to be used in the United States. It was called the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and became the standard intelligence test in the US.
  • Intelligence testing during WWI

    Intelligence testing during WWI
    Robert Yerkes (president of APA and chair of the Committee on the Psychological Examination of Recruits) developed the Army Alpha and Army Beta tests. The Alpha was written, while the Beta was given orally. The lowest scores were turned away from service, while the highest could get into specific roles and leadership positions.
  • The SAT begins

    The SAT begins
    To helps universities and colleges judge prospective students, the Scholastic Aptitude Test was designed.
  • Wechsler agrees with Binet

    Wechsler agrees with Binet
    In agreement with Binet, Wechsler believed that intelligence was composed of many different factors and abilities. In 1939, he described intelligence as "the global capacity of a person to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment"
  • A new measurement system!

    A new measurement system!
    American psychologist David Wechsler creates a new measurement system due to his dissatification with the limitations with Binet's system. He published his new intelligence test known as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) in 1955.
  • Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences

    Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences
    Believing in eight intelligences including linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and naturalist, Gardner emphasized that we have not an intelligence, but multiple.
  • Robert Sternberg's three intelligences

    Robert Sternberg's three intelligences
    Sternberg proposes a "triarchic theory" of three intelligences as opposed to Gardner's eight. They include analytical, creative, and practical intelligences.