History of Architecture

  • Period: to

    Victorian Era

    The Victorian Era brought great change in Architecture. The Industrial Revolution brought new building functions, while the British Empire widened our view of Architecture, bringing ideas from all around the globe.
  • Crystal Palace

    Crystal Palace
    Joseph Paxton designs the Crystal Palace for the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park
  • Oxford Museum

    Oxford Museum
    Dean and Woodward's oxford museum combines elements of Industrial, Gothic and Flemmish architecture
  • Red House

    Red House
    Phillip Webb designs the quintesential arts and crafts cottage for print maker William Morris
  • Period: to

    Arts and Crafts

    The arts and Crafts movement strove to reinstate the art of the craftsman in British design, which they felt had been lost to industrialism
  • St Pancras Station

    St Pancras Station
    designed by William Barlow, St Pancras Station was the widest spanning iron structure in the world
  • Cragside

    designed by Norman Shaw, Cragside combined modern technologies - was the first building to have hydroelectricity - with traditional aesthetics.
  • St Pancras Hotel

    St Pancras Hotel
    10 years after Barlow's station building is built, George Gilbert's Scott's gothic style hotel, designed to conceal the industrial style railway shed, is completed
  • Marshal Field Store

    Marshal Field Store
    One of the world's first skyscrapers is designed by Henry Hobson Richardson in Chicago
  • Glasgow School of Art

    Glasgow School of Art
    Charles Rennie Mackintosh designs one of the only arts and crafts buildings in a city setting.
  • Deanery Gardens

    Deanery Gardens
    Edwin Lutyens designed the house, with gardens by Gertrude Jekyl in a typical arts and crafts style
  • Sullivan Department Store

    Sullivan Department Store
    Louis Sullivan's Chicago department store phrophesizes the future of office and retail design through simply expressed structure and minimal detailing
  • AEG Factory

    AEG Factory
    Peter Behren's factory in Berlin offsets columns from the corners of the building - revolutionary move in architecture.
  • Period: to


    The modernist movement was defined by a desire to create pure, minimalist structures, and figureheaded by Le Corbusier and Mies Van Der Rohe
  • Fagus Works

    Fagus Works
    Walter Gropius, a pupil of Behren's, designs the Fagus Works factory alongside te AEG but inversing the ideas. He used glass-meets-glass corners, making the building appear more open and pure
  • Period: to

    First World War

    The war put a temporary stop to advances in the modernist movement, particularly in Germany, which was the home to a number of influential modernist artchitects such as Walter Gropius and Mies Van Der Rohe.
  • 5 Points of Architecture

    5 Points of Architecture
    Le Corbusier developed 5 points which he wished to adhere to in order to design pure, modernist buildings
  • Plan for a Brick Country House

    Plan for a Brick Country House
    Mies Van der Roge designed the brick villa based on a plan of free standing disconnected walls which streach out into the landscape. Though the design was never built, it influenced his designs for the Barcelona Pavilion.
  • Bauhaus

    The Bauhaus school in Dessau is designed by its founder Walter Gropius. The building develops the glass-meets-glass corner and the use of white render is introduced, moving closer to a recognisably modernist design
  • Barcelona Pavilion

    Barcelona Pavilion
    Mies Van Der Rohe designs the German pavilion for the world expo in Barcelona - the most refined modernist building so far, using exaggerated horizontals and free standing verticals to create an abstract composition of spaces.
  • Villa Muller

    Villa Muller
    Adolph Loos demonstrates his ideas of Raumplan - designing the plan based on 3D spatial relationships.
  • Villa Savoie

    Villa Savoie
    Le Corbusier demonstrated his 5 points of Architecture.
  • Villa Mairea

    Villa Mairea
    Alvar Aalto distorts norms of modernist design, punctuating his white modernist box with naturalistic details inspired by the woodland setting
  • Period: to

    Second World War

    Shortly before the outbreak of the second world war, Hitler closed down the Bauhaus school, effectively bringing an end to the modernist movement in Germany. Mies Van Der Rohe moved to America, where he designed buildings such as Farnsworth house, and met great success. Modernism continued in countries less affected by the war, such as Scandinavia and America.
  • Modulor Man

    Modulor Man
    Throughout the 1940s Le Corbusier refined his ideas of scale in Architecture based on human proportion. These ideas influenced his monastry designs as well as his design for his own holiday cabin, which is calculated at the minimum size possible based on human scale.
  • Unite D'Habitation

    Unite D'Habitation
    Le Corbusier creates a city within a building for his appartment block deisgn in Marseilles
  • Farnsworth House

    Farnsworth House
    Mies Van Der Rohe is inspired by steel framed buildings under construction in creating this skeletal steel and glass structure.
  • Vanna Venturi's House

    Vanna Venturi's House
    Robert Venturi designs a house for his mother, allowing him to experiment with his ideas of complexity and contraction
  • Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture

    Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture
    Robert Venturi publishes his influential book, which describes modernist architecture as boring and encourages a move away from its purist principles.
  • Pompidou Centre

    Pompidou Centre
    Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers design the hi-tech industrial gallery and exhibition space in Paris.
  • San Cataldo Cemetery

    San Cataldo Cemetery
    Aldo Rossi, author of Architecture of the City uses his ideas to design the cemetery as a "city of the dead" defined by monolithic concrete buildings arranged in a symmetrical materplan