Historical Evolution of the Middle School

By Ridale
  • First Junior High School

    First Junior High School
    The Columbus, Ohio, Board of Education approved the creation of the first Junior High School in the United States. Prior to this event, elementary schools extended to the 8th grade and high schools began at the 9th grade level. Unfortunately, drop out rates were very high after elementary school due to many students failing to advance their education into high school.
    Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indianola_Junior_High_School
  • The Junior High School Popularity

    The Junior High School Popularity
    The idea of junior high school became popular due to dissatisfaction of the old elementary/high school model and the old system of 8-4 organization. Adovacates supported schools based on the needs of of the young adolescents (George & Alexander, 2003). Reference:
    George, Paul; Alexander, William. (2003). The exemplary middle school (3rd ed.) Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publisher.
    Image from: http://www.old-picture.com/american-legac
  • Junior High Boom

    The junior high movement boomed after the 1920's, mostly due to the overcrowding of schools after WW1. Whatever the reason, junior high schools were becoming common and advancements were made in the quality of education (George & Alexander, 2003). George, Paul; Alexander, William. (2003). The exemplary middle school (3rd ed.) Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publisher.
  • Gruhn and Douglas

    Gruhn and Douglas
    Between the 40's and 50's, Gruhn and Douglas helped to bring ideas of change to the junior high school. They proposed a foundational framework for effective middle school level instruction. They described 6 major functions of the junior high (Lounsbury, 1996). Reference:
    Lounsbury, J. (1996). Key Characteristics of the Middle Level Schools. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov
  • Dissatisfaction with Junior High

    The junior high 6-3-3 plan was considered inadequate in meeting the needs of young adolescents. Many educators and theoreticians found detrimental issues with junior highs accross the country (George & Alexander, 2003). Reference:
    George, Paul; Alexander, William. (2003). The exemplary middle school (3rd ed.) Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publisher.
  • Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
    The first publication to voice dissatisfaction of junior high programs, the authors of the paper outlined many problems. Junior high problematic issues included too secondary and departmentalization. This began the reorganization of the junior high school (George & Alexander, 2003). Reference:
    George, Paul; Alexander, William. (2003). The exemplary middle school (3rd ed.) Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publisher.
    Image from: http://www.ascd.org/Default.aspx
  • Donald Eichhorn: "The New Middle School"

    Donald Eichhorn: "The New Middle School"
    Donald Eichhorn, one of the founders of todays middle school used his study of junior high and the needs of young adolescents to encourage change. He proposed the establishment of a "new school in the middle (George & Alexander, 2003)." The new "middle school" would include grades 6-8. Reference:
    George, Paul; Alexander, William. (2003). The exemplary middle school (3rd ed.) Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publisher.
    Image from:http://www.amle.org
  • Middle School Explosion

    Middle School Explosion
    Beginning in the 1960's, the middle school reformation exploded! By 1965, the middle school movement was in full swing accross the United States (George & Alexander, 2003). This increased continued for the next 35 years and it was the "dominate form of education for young adolescents (George & Alexander, 2003)."
    Reference:
    George, Paul; Alexander, William. (2003). The exemplary middle school (3rd ed.) Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publisher.
    Image from: http://giphy.com/gifs/HhTXt43
  • National Middle School Association

    National Middle School Association
    National Middle School Association was created to provide support to those concerned for the education and developmental needs of young adolescents (AMLE, 2015). In 1977, NMSA set goals for the middle school and specified developmentally appropriateness for young adolescents (George & Alexander, 2003). Reference:
    George, Paul; Alexander, William. (2003). The exemplary middle school (3rd ed.) Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publisher.
    Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org
  • This We Believe

    This We Believe
    The National Middle School association published the paper THIS WE BELIEVE. This served as the first definition of the key characteristics of the middle school that seemed generally agreed upon by many. The paper included "the ten elements of a true middle school (Loundsbury, 1996)."
    Reference:
    Lounsbury, J. (1996). Key Characteristics of the Middle Level Schools. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov
    Image from: https://www.amle.org/Shop
  • A Nation at Risk

    After the publication of A Nation at Risk, a stronger push towards laws implementing more rigorous programs in high school. At the time, 9th grade varied in middle school organization. Therefore, 9th grade was considered high school in many states and rigor laws would apply. Eventually, 9th grade was officially relocated to high school (George & Alexander, 2003).
    Reference:
    George, Paul; Alexander, William. (2003). The exemplary middle school (3rd ed.) Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College
  • Carnegie Task Force on Education of Young Adolescents

    Carnegie Task Force on Education of Young Adolescents
    The Carnegie Task Force noted the importance of family and community in the education and development of young adolescents. In their paper TURNING POINTS, they combined the characteristics of middle schools with critical components involving family and community. Education became a public agenda (Lounsbury, 2009). Reference:
    Lounsbury, J. (1996). Key Characteristics of the Middle Level Schools. Retrieved from: Image from: http://ca.pbsstatic.com/l/11/5411/9780962315411.jpg
  • National Consesus of Middle School

    National Consesus of Middle School
    An national agreement among educators and citizens has emerged that specifies the three main goals. "All exemplary middle school level schools seek to accomplish three central essential goals for their students: academic learning, personal development, and group citizenship (George & Alexander, 2003, p. 51)." Reference:
    George, Paul; Alexander, William. (2003). The exemplary middle school (3rd ed.) Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publisher.
    Image from: http://tinyurl.com/o6fa96o
  • No Child Left Behind Act

    No Child Left Behind Act
    No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), originally Elementary and Secondary Education Act, was created to provide educational equity for low-income families. In 2002, NCLB placed more emphasis on standards, testing, and accountability. It required all students to be proficient in grade level Math and Reading by 2014 (New America Foundation, 2014). Image from http://sites.psu.edu/
    Reference:
    New American Foundation. (2014). Federal Education Budget Project. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/mq6cejp