Hi-394 Assignment 2

  • First Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    The Chinese first came to Canada in 1788. At this time approximately 50 Chinese artisans accompanied Captain John Meares to help build a trading post. This trading post would encourage trade between Guangzhou, China and Nootka Sound (an inlet on the island of Vancouver).
  • Second Chinese Arrivals

    The first Chinese arrivals helped John Meares with the trading post successfully. Meares was so impressed with their work that the following year he brought 70 more men from China in 1789.
  • The Spanish Invasion (Nootka Crisis)

    In the summer of 1789 the Spanish arrived at Nootka Sound and formally took possesion of it. During this time the Spanish swiftly cast out the British and Captain Meares along with the Chinese labour workers. There are discrepencies about what happened to the Chinese labourors. Historical evidence suggests that many were taken prisoners, some were killed and some may have managed to escape. According to evidence, some of the Chinese settled in Vancouver raising families with Aboriginal women.
  • Chinese Miagrating to California

    The remarkable discovery of gold in the Western regions of the United States proved to be one of its most noteworthy events. In light of this event, thousands of gold miners travelled across the seas, lands and mountains to mine the gold in California. Among these migrators were Chinese who were also lured to California via ship owners.
  • The Next Wave of Chinese Immigrants

    Subsequent the tragic events at Nootka Sound there are no historical evidence of new Chinese immigrants in Canada until 1858. Not until this time did Chinese immigrants arrive in large numbers. The Chinese immigrants from California and others from China began to migrate to British Columbia due to the discovery of gold in Fraser Valley.
  • Mrs. Kwong Lee

    Mrs. Kwong Lee was the first Chinese woman to arrive in Canada. Her husband was a successful store owner who sold Chinese goods in Vancouver.
  • The Fraser Gold Rush

    Within the first two years of the Fraser Gold Rush, Victoria, B.C grew from a significantly small population of 300 people to a full community made up of 1577 Chinese residents and 2884 Caucasian residents. Due to the astonishing number of new Chinese immigrants, the first Chinatown in Canada was established in Victoria.
  • First Chinese person born in Canada

    In 1861 Won Alexander Cumyow was the first Chinese baby born in Canada.
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    The Government of Canada Restricted the Chinese

    During this time frame the government of Canada passed twenty-six laws in an attempt to restrict the Chinese as much as possible. In fact, the racist laws and policies soon exceded one hundred.
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    Canadian Pacific Railway

    In !871 British Columbia became Canada's sixth province and a rail road needed to be created to connect the Pacific coast with the rest of Canada. Many Chinese immigrants were contracted to work the railways. In between 1881 to 1885 approximately 17, 000 Chinese men miagrated to Canada to work on the railways. Unfortunately all of the Chinese workers were descriminated against and experienced severe racism.
  • Pon Hincheng

    Pon Hincheng was born in Taishan, a region in China. He left his family to work on the pacific railroad. After the completion of the railway he was forced to stay in Canada because he could not afford to return home (this was the sad reality for many of the Chinese people). Instead he stayed in Canada running a laundry service, by the early 1900 he had saved $200 from his earnings to bring his two sons to Canada from China.
  • The Chinese Head Tax

    From the moment the Pacific Railway was completed, Canada turned its back to the Chinese people. The Anti-Chinese immigration law was implemented. This was defiened as an act to restrict Chinese immigation into Canada. Essentially, the Chinese immigrants were required to pay a $50 head tax which was a heafty burden considering they earned an average of $250 per year.
  • Chinese Women in Canada

    In 1885 there were approximately 10,335 Chinese men in Canada and only 157 Chinese women in Canada. According to historical records this gender imbalance was the most severe when compared to other immigrant groups.
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    Acknowledging The Past

    From 1885 until 1923, 81,000 immigrants paid an estimated total amount of $23 million in head taxes. Further, the subsequent Chinese Exclusion Act prohibited Chinese immigration to Canada for twenty-three years. Due to this many family ties were severed.
  • Chinese Women

    In 1885 Chinese women only comprised 1 % of Canada's Chinese population.
  • Completion of the Raiway

    Due to the hardwork and dilligence of the chinese miagrants, the railway was finished six years ahead of schedule. However, according to records no Chinese people were invited to this historical event.
  • The reprecussions of the Railway

    The Chinese workers were given the most dangerous tasks and the least amount of pay regardless of there efficiency in comparrison to the Caucasin railway workers. As a result of the dangerous tasks many Chinese workers died. The exact number of casualties is unknown but it is estimated to be between 600 and 750.
  • Diminishing Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    The $50 headtax significantly decreased Chinese immigrants from thousands to only 212. The head tax was later increased to $100 and then $500, however the factors that lead people to leave China were so strong that immigration from China started to peak again.
  • Population of Chinese in Victoria in the early 1900s

    In 1902, Victoria had a Chinese population of approximately 3283 and only 96 of those were women.
  • Nellie Yip Quong

    Due to the lack of Chinese women in Canada, intermarriage was not uncommon between the Chinese men and First Nations and other local woman. Nellie married a successful Chinese jeweller and then worked as an advocate for the Chinese community. She provided many services including the health services that were denied to the Chinese.
  • Chinese Canadians in the First World War

    During the war there were labour shortages. During this time Canada tallowed 80 000 Chinese labourers to come into Canada to work at Canadian military bases.
  • The Chinese Exclusion Act

    The head taxes implemented by the Canadian government failed to recede prospective Chinese immigrants. As a result the government enacted the Chinese Exclusion Act, formally known as the Chinese Immigration Act.Due to this law all Chinese people were denied entry into Canada for the sole reason of their race.
  • Chinese-Canadians in the Second World War

    China and Canada became alliies after the bombing at Pearl Harbor. China and Canada had a common enemy, Japan. During this time Chinese-Canadians were able to join the war and aid their country.
  • The End Of The Second World War

    The end of the second world war marked a major turning point regarding the attitudes about the Chinese. Canadian men and women had served alongside their Chinese counterparts. Further, the Nazi's had forced many countries to reasses their own racist policies and regulations.
  • The Repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Law

    In 1947, Canada repealed the anti-chinese discriminatory laws. The Chinese were also allowed to vote and obtain professional jobs
  • Changing Attitudes

    For the first time since 1885, the Chinese people were able to apply for entry as equals with other immigrants. Significant waves of new comers arrived in Canada from China, Vietnam and Hong Kong. Along with them they bought their diverse traditions, skills and languages.
  • An Apology and Compensation

    The Canadian government finally made an official appology on June 22 of 2006. Further, the government distributed payments of $20,000 to each of the tax head survivors and to the living spouses of the deceaced payers. Lastly, it is important to note that only 30 of the 81,000 head tax payers lived to hear the apology and recieve the payment.