HBSE 6008 Behaviorism Timeline

By YifeiS
  • Period: 500 BCE to 200 BCE

    Greek Philosophy Influences

    The Greeks introduced basic science and research concepts such as observation, induction (bottom-up) and deduction (top-down).
  • Period: 428 BCE to 348 BCE


    Plato believes the what's real is underneath the observable, what is sensed is manifestation of underlying principles.
    Introduced theory of recollection, one of the first examples of a priori knowledge.
  • Period: 384 BCE to 322 BCE


    What's real is the visible world.
    Introduced direct observation.
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    Rationality of statements, discovery (methods of science, or history) and justification (method of logic, interpretation of discoveries)
    It emphasizes the role of evidence over innate ideas.
  • Francis Bacon

    Suggested that inductive reasoning is superior to syllogism
  • Descartes

    Introduced mind-body dualism
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    J. Locke- Liberialism

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    Scottish Enlightenment

    Emphasizes how theory affect the society in practical ways.
    People start to reject authority that is not backed up with reasoning or logic.
  • Kant- "The Critique of Pure Reason"

    Beginning of Empirical Realism
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    Experimental Psychology

  • John Stewart Mills- System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive

    Introduced the methods of science: method of agreement, method of difference, joint method, method of residue, and the method of concomitant variations.
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    Ivan Pavlov

  • Darwin- On the Origin of Species

    Explained natural selection in detail and presented evidence leading to increasingly wide acceptance of the occurrence of evolution.
  • Broca & Wernicke- Neuropsychology

    Connection between the activity in certain areas of human brain and speech production & language comprehension
  • Ivan Sechenov "Reflexes of the Brain"

    Introduced inhibitory responses in central nervous system.
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    The belief that reality must be experienced. John Dewey stated that we should use empirical research and factual data to explain and discuss natural phenomena .
  • Charles Peirce "The Fixation of Belief"

    Method of tenacity and the method of authority
  • William Wundt- Voluntarism

    Established psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany to separate psychology from philosophy.
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    J.B. Watson

  • Charles Pierce

    Taught and wrote on the basic principles of pragmatism
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    American Progressive Movement

  • Jacques Loeb- "Comparative Physiology of the Brain and Comparative Psychology"

  • William James- "The Principles of Psychology"

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    E.L. Thorndike

  • Hall established American Psychology Association

  • E. B. Titchner- Established Structuralism

    Analysis of aspects of human cognition, behavior, culture, and experience to contrast among elements in a conceptual system to reflect/uncover patterns underlying a superficial diversity.
  • E. L. Thorndike- developed "Law of effect"

    as part of his social learning theory
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    Established by Ernst von Brucke, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler and Melanie Klein.
  • Ivan Pavlov- Classical Conditioning

    Investigated how a formerly neural stimulus affected behavior after being paired with a stimulus that affected the behavior previously.
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    B.F. Skinner

  • Pavlov- Published classical conditioning studies

    also known as Pavlovian Conditioning
  • John B. Watson- Behaviorism

    Watson published "Psychology as a Behaviorist Views It" in which he discussed psychology as directive experimental branch of natural science, which in turn means that we can predict and control behavior.
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    Methodological Behaviorism

    Watson and respondent conditioning, classic SR psychology, elicited behavior
  • Little Albert Experiment

    Watson and Rayner experiment with classical conditioning on humans
  • Tolman - A New Formula for Behaviorism

  • Lashley- published "The behavioristic interpretation of consciousness"

  • Kantor- published "Principles of Psychology"

    Interbehaviorism as a naturalistic system of psychology
    Kantor later published "Interbehavioral Philosophy" in 1981 in which he further discussed interbehaviorism.
  • Harvey Carr- published "Psychology"

    refined functionalism
  • Logical Positivism

    Discussed the use of logical analysis of scientific concepts: verification, physicalism and unity of science
  • Operationalism

    The attempt to describe all scientific concepts using measurable observations.
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    Logical Positivism

  • Woodsworth- published "Psychology: A study of mental life"

    proposed S-O-R formulation
    Neo-Methodological Behaviorism
  • Skinner- Publishes first paper on Operant Conditioning

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  • Jean Piaget- Cognitive Theory

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    Logical Empiricism

  • Skinner- published "The Behavior of Organisms"

    introduced operant conditioning
  • C.L. Hull - published "Principles of Behavior"

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    Hullian Behaviorism

  • Skinner - started using the term "radical behaviorism"

    Skinner first mentioned the term Radical Behaviorism in "Psychological Review". He used the term to distinguish radical behaviorism from methodological behaviorism for the former denies the existence of mental entities but instead proposed the discussion of private events.
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    Radical Behaviorism

  • Keller & Schoenfeld - Published "Principles of Psychology"

  • Lovaas- DTT

    Forger of ABA by developing "discrete trial training" procedure.
  • Skinner- published "Verbal Behavior"

    Skinner distinguished verbal behavior from linguistics in the book where he introduced 6 basic verbal operants.
  • Fesrster & Skinner - published "Schedules of Reinforcement"

  • Sidman- "Tactics for Scientific Research"

  • Chomsky- "Review of Verbal Behavior"

    Criticized Skinner's behaviorism
  • Lindsley- Precision Training

    Widely used for fluency training
  • Albert Bandura- Introduced Observational Learning

  • Skinner- defined rule governed behavior

    As behaviors that occur after contacting rules that describe contingencies instead of directly contacting the contingency.
  • Project Follow Through

  • Skinner- Designed Teacher Machine

  • Thompson & Goldiamond- "The functional analysis of behavior"

  • Baer, Wolf & Risley- define Applied Behavior Analysis

  • Keller- PSI

    Keller designed Personalized System Instruction (aka Keller Plan) for college students.
  • Skinner- published "About Behaviorism"

  • Staats- published "Social Behaviroism"

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    Arthur Staats- Social Behaviorism

    aka Paradigmatic behaviorism. Studies human behavior such as personality, culture, and human evolution based off animal behaviors.
  • Bandura- published "Social Learning Theory"

    Bandura added mediating process between stimuli and responses, as well as learning through observation to classical and operant conditioning.
  • Horne & Lowe- Defined Naming

  • Hayes, Barnes-Holmes & Roche- RFT

  • Greer et al.- Induced Naming