Global 2 (4º)

Timeline created by JustACommonGuy
In History
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    Nationalism

    Nationalism emerged and meant the creation of new nations and the right to posses a territory & a system of self-government (state).
    Romanticism (feeling of love for a nation), the Congress of Vienna (feeling of being occupied by others), industrialization and capitalism (bigger economic growth) had a strong influence in the appearance of nationalism.
    Some wanted a unification of people with the same cultural tradition (unifying) while others wanted independence from a bigger unit (dividing).
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    Napoleonic Wars

    Napoleon Bonaparte declared himself emperor and revived the idea of a universal European empire. He invaded many territories in Europe but was ultimately defeated and exiled.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Napoleon retired all French troops from Spain and recognized Fernando VII as the legitimate king.
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    The Congress of Vienna

    Several objectives were proposed:
    -Restoration of absolutism under the name of Legitimism (only kings had the legitimacy to govern).
    -The creation of the Holly Alliance, which was created by absolutist powers to protect each other against revolutions.
    -The redistribution of territories based on balance of powers. Many were restored to pre-revolutionary France and some were created to stop its expansion (Piedmont-Sardinia, Netherlands, German Confederation).
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    Second reign of Fernando VII

    He came back after the defeat of Napoleon in the Peninsular War. As he was a supporter of absolutism, so he tried to suppress liberalism and all its reforms, but many people were already very influenced by liberalism, which caused pronunciamientos.
    His period is divided between the Sexenio absolutista, the Trienio liberal and the Década ominosa
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    Sexenio absolutista

    First period of the reign of Fernando VII, where he obtained help from the conservative elite (Manifiesto de los Persas) and the army and restored absolutism and the institutions of the Old Regime, suppressing the reforms of the Cortes de Cádiz and all their reforms.
    However, many people did not give up on liberal ideas and planned pronunciamientos (uprisings with military, political and popular action against the king).
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    Unification of Italy

    Nationalist movement.
    The democratic majority of the parliament of Piedmont-Sardinia was against Austria. Count of Cavour made an alliance with France to invade Austrian territories (battles of Solferino & Magenta), and then defeated the French to gain full control.
    Revolutionary Garibaldi invaded Naples and Sicily (controlled by the Bourbon) and indexed them to Piedmont.
    Finally, pope Piux IX was imprisoned in the Vatican city and renounced to the Papal Sates.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Napoleon was defeated by the Seventh Coalition and exiled to isle of Saint Helena
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    The Restoration of the Congress of Vienna

    It took place after the defeat of Napoleon and his exile. The victorious countries, Austria, Prussia, Russia (absolutist) and Great Britain (constitutional) gathered in the Congress of Vienna and restored the Old Regime.
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    Unification of Germay

    Nationalist movement. Prussia & Austria had a strong presence at the east, Bavaria at the south, Denmark at the north and many small territories governed by princes.
    It was led by Otto von Bismarck, Prussian cancellor (under Willian I).
  • Declaration of Greek Independence

    A democratic assembly in Greece declared independence from the absolutist Ottoman Empire. This was a nationalist movement.
  • Revolutions of 1820s

    Spain started the period of Trienio liberal and many American Spanish territories fought for independence.
    This and the Constitution of 1812 inspired other territories to fight for a Constitution and liberal reforms (Piedmont, Sicily, Portugal).
    Nationalism also allowed Greece to achieve its independence.
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    Revolutionary waves

    Many were against the Restoration. Liberalism already had a strong presence in Europe and fought against absolutism. Nationalism also emerged and demanded the independence of some territories or unifications, against the territorial distribution of the Congress of Vienna.
    There were 3 anti-absolutist revolutionary waves in the 19th century. Most were liberal, some were nationalist or both.
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    Trienio liberal

    An army was supposed to travel to America to suppress revolutionary movements, but they were convinced by colonel Riego to start a pronunciamiento that forced Fernando to restore the Constitution of 1812 and other liberal reforms. This period was quite unstable, as liberals were divided in doceañistas and exaltados. However, Fernando got help from the Holly Alliance, and a French army (Los Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis) invaded Spain and restored absolutism.
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    First English Trade unions

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    Década ominosa

    During this period, Fernando took conservative, preventive measures, such as the closure of universities and the restoration of the Inquisition. Liberals still organized pronunicamientos, but they were suppressed.
    However, Fernando kept contact with the doceañistas to ensure her daughter Isabel inherited his throne.
  • Revolutions of 1830s

    It started with the French Revolution of 1830.
    The Belgians started a liberal and nationalist movement. They declared independence and created a Constitution.
    Poland also started a nationalist uprising, but it was harshly suppressed by the Russian and Prussian army.
  • July Revolution

    Liberal revolution where students, intellectuals and workers in Paris fought and Charles X, successor of Louis XVIII, was overthrown.
    It was replaced by a parliamentary monarchy under Louis Philippe of Orleans.
  • Birth of Isabel II

    Carlists (absolutists) wanted Carlos María Isidro to be Fernando's successor. However, Fernando wanted Isabel to inherit the throne, so he seeked support from the doceañistas. He also approved the Pragmática Sanción to suppress the Salic Law, which did not allow women to inherit the throne. This triggered the First Carlist War
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    First Carlist War

    It was a succession war between:
    -Carlists: supporters of absolutism and traditions (Dios, Patria, Fueros, Rey). They wanted Carlos María Isidro (Fernando's brother) to be the king. Carlism was widespread in the north.
    -Isabelinos; supporters of a transition to liberalism. They wanted Isabel (Fernando's daughter) to be the queen. The army and the urban population kept loyal, which allowed them to win the war, led by General Espartero.
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    Reign of Isabel II

    It meant the transition to a liberal Spain. During her reign, the government was contested between conservatives and progressives (moderates and radicals). Isabel herself was moderate, because it allowed her to be more powerful.
    Her reign was divided between a minority reign (because she was too young when Fernando died) and a majority reign.
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    Minority reign of Isabel II

    She was 3 years old when her father died, so her mother María Cristina de Nápoles was the Regent queen, who started a transition to moderate liberalism. In 1840, the Regent was expelled from the government, and Espartero took power.
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    Regency of María Cristina

    The government was moderate, and drafted the Estatuto Real (not a constitution, power still in hands of the queen), which recognized some rights. The Progresists thought this was not enough, so they organized uprisings and took power.
    After that, the Regent gave all the power to the moderates, who reversed some reforms. The Progresists then decided to organize another uprising, which forced her into exile.
  • Zollverein / Custom Union

    Coalition to manage economic policies in Germany created by Austria. It featured a single railway network. It promoted economic development and encouraged the middle class to support the unification. It excluded Austria.
  • Motín de la Granja

    Uprising organized by progressists that forced María Cristina to restore de 1812 Constitution. Minister Mendizábal took control and introduced a new Constitution and liberal reforms, such as the desamortización, which nationalized lands and properties of the Church, in order to obtain funds for the wars and the national debt.
  • Approval of the Cosntitution of 1837

    After the Motín de la Granja, progressists approved a new Constitution, less radical than the Constitution of Cádiz.
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    Victorian England

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    Regency of General Espartero

    Espartero was a progressist general that led the supporters of Isabel in the Carlist War. He took control, but he was ousted shortly after.
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    Majority reign of Isabel II

    She was declared majority shortly after the end of the Regency of general Espartero. As the minority, moderates and progressists fought for the control of the government.
    This period divides into the Moderate decade, the Progressive biennium and the Crisis of moderantism.
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    Moderate decade

    The government was quite conservative during this period. Progressists were marginalized during this period and the recently created Democratic Party was suppressed. A conservative Constitution was approved.
  • Approval of the 1845 Consitution

    After the majority of Isabel was declared, a new moderate, conservative Constitution, which reinforced the queen's power, was approved.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Phillipe of Orleans was overthrown and a democratic, Second Republic was declared. It featured a Constitution with universal male suffrage. It was short and the Second Empire, under Napoleon III started.
    It later spread to other countries in Europe. The Labor movement started.
    It was particularly important because it included democratic and social demands (right to strike, 10 hour-work day & universal male suffrage). Their aims were not achieved but the movement had importance for the future.
  • Communist Manifesto

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    Expansion of railways

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    Crimean War

  • Vicalvarada

    Progressist pronuniciamiento that started the Progressive Biennium
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    Progressive Bienium

    Progressists took control and started to approve liberal reforms. Minister Madoz approved a desamortización, which promoted industrial development and building of rails. A constitution was drafted, but moderates regained control before it was approved.
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    Crisis of moderantism

    Moderates took preventive measures. The opposition was excluded from the parliament. Students, military and politicians were repressed. Financial and subsistence crisis, social unrest and political discontent forced the opposition to plan a coup d'etat and start the Revolution of 1868.
  • First oil depot mined

  • Election of Abraham Lincoln

  • Abolition of feudal obligations in Russia

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    American Civil War

  • Dsipute for Schleswig & Holstein

    Bismarck made an alliance with Austria to declare war to Denmark in order to obtain Schleswig & Holstein. Agreements on territory control were unclear, which triggered the Austro-Prussian War.
  • Foundation of the International Workingmen's Association (IWA) or First International

  • Syllabus Errorum

  • Pact of Ostend

    Progressists, democrats, republicans and many other radical liberals decided to ally in order to overthrow Isabel II, summon a Constituent Assembly and create a democratic government. They were led by O'Donnell, head of the Liberal Union Party.
  • Battle of Sadowa

    Ended the Austro-Prussian War. Bismarck defeated the Austrians.
  • Das Kapital

  • Emergence of the Austro-Hungarian Empire

  • Revolution of 1868 "La Gloriosa"

    The opposition, led by Prim and Serrano, started a popular and military uprising in Cádiz in September 1868, which caused the revolution, forcing Isabel II to exile in France. This meant the start of the Sexenio democrático.
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    Provisional Government of the Sexenio Democratico

  • Constitution of 1869

  • Coronation of Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy

    He was the king of Piedmont, but he was crowned as king of Italy. This meant the start of a new constitutional, moderate monarchy, where the capital was Rome.
  • Battle of Sedan

    Ended the Franco-Prussian War, which was caused by the attempts of Bismarck to annex Lorraine and Alsace. This resulted in a siege in Paris and capture of Napoleon III, ending the II Empire and triggering the Paris Commune.
  • Declaration of the III Republic of France

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    Second Industrial Revolution

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    First socialist political parties

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    Establishment of interoceanic cables for instantaneous communications

  • Declaration of the Second Reich

    The Second German Empire was declared, being William I the first emperor.
  • Paris Commune

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    Reign of Amadeo I

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    Third Carlist War

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    First Spanish Republic

  • Copu d'etat of General Pavia

  • Pronunciamiento de Sagunto

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    The Transition to the Restoraration

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    Reign of Alfonso XII

  • Constitution of 1876

  • Dissolution of the First International

  • Foundation of PSOE

  • The incandescent light bulb

  • Pacto del Pardo

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    Regency of Maria Cristina (of Alfonso XIII)

  • First oil-powered automobile

  • Foundation of UGT (PSOE)

  • Approval of universal suffrage in Spain by the Liberal Party

  • Bombing of Liceu (Barcelona)

  • Foundation of the PNV

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    Cuban War of Independence

  • Magnicide of Cánovas del Castillo

  • Disaster of '98

  • Foundation of the Lliga Regionalista

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    The First World War (the Great War)