From the Past to the Present; Tina H.

By 263tina
  • 100

    Galen of Rome

    He was a physician who lived in Rome during the AD 100s. Galen wrote many volumes that sumarized all the medical knowledge that he knew himself along with what had learned of others.
  • 105

    The Development of Paper and Printing (China)

    Around 105 CE, paper and printing was created in China. Paper was made from bamboo, hemp, and mulberry bark. Scholars utilized them for important purposes, however they wrote in vertical columns. The readers would read them downward from right to left. During the Han Dynasty, paper was needed, therefore there was a mass production of papers in factories.
  • 149

    The Last Punic War

    Finally, in 149 BC the Romans declared war against their enemy once and for all. After three years, Carthage finally fell to its depths. The Romans dominated the population and completely left the city in ruins.
  • 150

    The Decline of the Hellenistic Period

    In 150 BC, the Hellenisitc world was in decline. The decline occured because the rising of a new city, which was Rome. The city of Rome grew and gained strength throughout the years. In doing so, all of Greeks inventions and creatings adapted to the city of Rome.
  • 202

    The Rise of the Han Dynasty

    When the Han Dynasty rose in 202 BCE, the people began to trade with Europe and the religion, Buddhism was spreaded amongst the people. The Han Dynasty later fell in 220 CE under the power of the Sui Dynasty.
  • 202

    The Second Punic War

    In 202 BC, Scipio routed Hannibal's army onto the plain of Zama outside of Carthage and took over the city, which ended the Second Punic War.
  • 218

    The Carthaginian General, Hannibal

    Around 218 BC, the Carthaginian general, Hannibal, led a well-trained army, along with war elephants across the Pyrenees and the Alps to invade Italy. The outcome of his decision was successful with having to dominate the countryside of Italy and defeating one Roman army after another.
  • 221

    The Rise of the Qin Dynasty

    The Qin Dynasty rose into power in 221 BCE in the power of the first emperor, which was Shi-Huangdi. In this dynasty, the Great Wall of China was built. Later on, the Qin Dynasty fell in 206 BCE due to a new rising dynasty known as the Han Dynasty.
  • 221

    The Great Wall of China

    In 221 BCE, the Great China was built during the Qin Dynasty. Shi-Huangdi gained control over the warring Chinese states. The Great Wall prevent invaders from attacking China, it extended more 3,000 miles, and in addition it lengthened to 4,000 miles during the Ming Dynasty. Also, watchtowers were built first, therefore gaurds could watch their invaders from afar.
  • 264

    The First Punic War

    In 264 BC, violence broke out between Rome and Carthage, which was the beginning of the First Punic War. Since the war was mostly fought at sea, Carthage had much of an advantage with their powerful navy. However, the Romans built a navy of their own and were able to defeat Carthage.
  • 265

    The Conquest of Italy

    About 265 BC the Romans had defeated the Etruscans and the Greek cities in southern Italy. After the conquest, Italy began their journey to Sicily, which was a large island to the south of the peninsula.
  • 300

    Republican Government

    In the 300s BC the Romanss elected magistrates, or praetors to give military commands or were appointed as provincial governors after their time in the office. For assistant, many other officials were elected to handle other tasks for the city's administration.
  • 313

    Imperial Approval: Constatine

    Constatine became a patron of Christianity after winning a battle. In 313 BC he issued the Edict of Milan, which made Christianity legal in the empire. Constatine did not ban the practice of other religions, however his support in Christianity helped spreaded more quickly throughout the Roman Empire.
  • 332

    Alexander Becomes Alexander the Great

    In 332 BC, Alexander marched into one of the Persian's territory, which is Egypt, he dominated Gaugamela. From 326 to 323 BC, Alexander marched into the Indus Valley and reached Babylon. When he reached Babylon, he wanted to reconstruct and conquered Arabia, however his soldiers were worn out and wanted to return home. At the age 32, Alexander the Great died.
  • 334

    Alexander Defeats Persia

    In 334 BC, Alexander decided to carry out his father's plan to invade and conquer Persia. Therefore, he led 35,000 soldiers into Anatolia and took over.
  • 335

    The Hellenistic Period: Philosophy

    Stoicism (Zeno) was born in 335 BC, he was a philosopher and discovered a school of philosophy. He believed that people should live their lives in harmonry whether there is a God or not one at all. He preached about that human desires, power, and wealth were distractions in life. In addition. Stoicism promoted unity.
  • 359

    Philip Builds Macedonia Power

    Macedonia was located north of Greece, settlers would live in mountain villages. In 359 BC, Philip II became king of Macedonia and he prepared an invasion in Greece. In 338 BC, Macedonia defeated Greeks at the battle of Chaeronea, which ended Greek's independenc. Later on, in 336 BC, Philip II was stabbed to death and his son, Alexander came into power.
  • 381

    The Rise of the Sui Dynasty

    The Sui Dynasty came into power around 381 CE. In this dynasty the people built the Grand Canal. Along the years, the Sui Dynasty was decline in 618 CE, because of the rise of the Tang Dynasty.
  • 384

    Aristotle's Greatest Intelligence

    Born in 384 BC, Aristotle was the son of a physician and was one of the brightest students at Plato's Academy. In 355 BC, Aristotle opened his own school in Athens called the Lyceum. Aristotle died in 322 BC.
  • 427

    Plato's Greatest Intelligence

    Plato was born on 427 BC into a wealthy family. He was a philosopher and recorded many events and ideas of Europe. Also, he was a student of Socrates and many years later, he had a school of his own called the Academy. Plato died in 347 BC.
  • 431

    The Peloponnesian War

    The Peloponnesian War involved two city-states, Athens and Sparta. Athens had the stronger navy, and Sparta had the stronger army. As time passed on, a plague swept through the city and killed one-third of the population, including Pericles which he led the Athenian army. In 421 BC, both sides were worn down from the war and decided to sign a truce.
  • 450

    The Twelve Tables

    Around 450 BC, the plebians, the common people, forced the patricians, the heads of a few aristocratic families, to have all laws written down. Later, those laws were displayed in the Roman Forum and were known as the Law of the Twelve Tables.
  • 470

    Socrates' Greatest Intelligence

    Born in 470 BC, Socrates used students to examine their beliefs. The Socratic Method was people contradiciting people's opinions. Socrates devoted his life in gaining knowledge. Socrates died in 399 BC.
  • 500

    Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)

    Around 500 BC, Siddhartha, or also known as Buddha was born and raised in a small kingdom. He developed the religion, Buddhism. Within the religion, there were the Eightfold Path: (1) right view, (2) right attitude, (3) right speech, (4) right actions, (5) right livelihood, (6) right effort, (7) right mindfulness, (8) right concentration. He believed in those who followed the Eightfold Path could achieve nirvana. Along the way, Buddha advises people to live in moderation.
  • 551

    The Birth of Confucianism

    Confucius was born in 551 BC, he was raised in a poor family who lived during the Zhou's decline. Confucius' teachings were partical, he taught a system of respect and coutesy, meaning higher positions deserved respsect from lower positions. Also, he believed that the government should serve the people. In addition to Confucianism, it is a philosophy, it focuses on moral, social, and political aspects of living.
  • 551

    The Birth of Daoism

    Laozi was born around the sixth century BC, he developed the philosophy of Daoism. Laozi's teachings were spiritual, he taught the concept of yin and yang. Yin represented the moon, cold, dark, mysterious,. As for yang, it represented the sun, bright, warm, and clear. In Daoism, Laozi believed that the natural order is more important thant social order, along with the universal force guides all things, and lastly, human beings should live simply and in harmony with nature.
  • 551

    The Birth of Legalism

    Around 551 BC, Legalism were founded by Hanfeizi and Li Si. Legalists, a group of practical political thinkers, believed that a highly efficient and powerful government is the key to social order, along with pushiments were useful to maintain social order, and thinkers and their ideas should be strictly controlled by the government. Oppossed from Confucianism, the Legalism ethical system, taught the people that they should serve the government.
  • Jun 6, 616

    The Etruscans

    Before 616 BC, Rome was ruled by Latin kings, however, it was dominated by the Etruscans of northern Italy. Settlers from that area were mainly metalworkers and jewelers which their culture were heavily influenced by Greece.
  • Apr 4, 618

    The Rise of the Tang Dynasty

    After the domination of the Sui Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty took over in 618 BCE. In this dynasty, literature and arts were developed. However, the Tang Dynasty was dominated by the Song Dynasty in 907 CE.
  • May 5, 725

    Sparta Builds A Military State

    Around 725 BC, Sparta conquered Messenians, which led up to having the Messenians becoming helots. Sparta demanded half of their crops, and in 650 BC, the Messenians revolted against Spartans.
  • Jun 6, 753

    The Founding of Rome

    In 753 BC, Romulus and Remus found the city of Rome. The people who built Rome were members of the Indo-European tribe who were also known as the Latins who had settled in Italy around the 1000s BC.
  • Apr 4, 960

    The Rise of the Song Dynasty

    Rising into power, the Song Dynasty developed poetry, painting, and calligraphy. These developments brought many advatages and achievements for the people. Unfortunately, the dynasty fell in 1279 CE.
  • Apr 4, 1122

    The Rise of the Zhou Dynasty

    In 1122 BCE, the Zhou Dynasty rose into power. In this dynasty, there were two philosophers who became important in history. These two philosophers were Confucis and Lao Tsu. However, as the time passes by, the dynasty fell in 256 BCE. The Zhou Dynasty fell,because of the domination of the Qin Dynasty.
  • May 5, 1200

    The Trojan War

    About 1200 BC, the Mycenaean fought a ten year war against Troy, which is an independent trading city located in Anatolia. The war started because of the Greece's army destroying Troy along with having a Trojan prince kidnapping the wife, Helen, of a Greek king.
  • May 5, 1200

    The Dorians

    During 1200 BC, sea raiders attacked and burned many Mycenaean cities, which led to having the Dorians moving in. They spoke dialect Greek and might have been relatives of Bromx Age Greeks, however they wereless advanced than the Mycenaeans. Along the way thier economy collasped, their trading decreased, and the Greeks didn't know how to write during the Dorian Age. Therefore from 1150 to 250 BC, no written records were recorded.
  • Apr 4, 1271

    The Rise of the Yuan Dynasty

    In 1271 CE, the Yuan Dynasty came into power. Unfortunately, this dynasty was unpopular and did not recieve much attention due to the Mongols. Therefore this dynasty fell in 1368 CE.
  • Apr 4, 1279

    The Mongols (China)

    After Kublai's grandfather, Genghis Khan died in 1227 CE, Kublai avenged his death. In which it led up to having him controlling all of China, also he became emperor which he started the Yuan Dynasty and set up the capital of Beijing. His palace was addresses as the Forbidden City. The Mongols refused to learn Chinese, the Chinese officials ran the government. However, the dynasty lost power because it could not communicate, learn nor adapt to the Chinese culture.
  • Feb 2, 1290

    Ramses II as King of Egypt

    During the New Kingdon, Ramses II ruled over Egypt around the year of 1290 BCE. There was peace amongst the village due to his actions.
  • Apr 4, 1368

    The Rise of the Ming Dynasty

    Although the Ming Dynasty was last, it left an impression in history. Exquisite arts and crafts were made in this dynasty, along with inspiring many creative minds to develope new inventions and paintings. Hoewver, the decline of the Ming Dynasty occured in 1644 CE.
  • Mar 3, 1500

    New Comers in the Indus Valley

    About 1500 BC, the Indian civilization would rise to the top again from the introducing new comers, the Aryans. These newcomers settled in the Indus Valley which they will later bring the delcination of the city and its culture to the top once more.
  • May 5, 1500

    The Mycenaeans and the Minoans

    Around 1500 BC, the Mycenaeans came into contac with the Minoans, which brought inspiration to both civilizations. Soon after, both civilizations sailed to the eastern Mediterran. The Minoans influenced the Mycenaeans to seaborne trade, along with having the Mycenaeans to adapt to the Minoans writing system and their culture, which created religion, art, politics, and literature.
  • The End of the Middle Kingdom

    Around 1640 B.C., the Middle Kingdom came to its end due to the domination of Hykosos. These settlers were from Palestine and moved across the Isthumus of Suez and into Egypt.
  • Quality of Buildings Declined (Indus Valley)

    The perfection og buildings came to its' decline in 1750 BC. As the cities were gradually disappearing, the satellite images of the subcontinent of India revealed evidence of shifts in tectonic plates. Tetonic plates are moving peices of the earth's crust. In doing so, the movement of the plates might have caused the disruption of earthquakes and floods, along with alterations of courses in the Indus River.
  • The Sarswati (Indus Valley)

    Due to having the movement of the earth's crust, or tectonic plates, the shifting of the earth must have caused the river of Sarsawti to dry up. Without having the river for the transportation of goods, trading became a disadvantage. Even though cities brought many adavantages to the people, it was gradually dying. In an addition to having agriculture coming to its end. It was an important aspect in the civilization along with its people.
  • Indus Valley Culture Ends

    Around 1750 BC, the environmental changes prevented the production of food, which led to the Harppans suffering over the overused soil, to having the people being forced to leave their areas. In which the buildings and structure were gradually coming to its decline.
  • The Rise of the Shang Dynasty

    The Shang Dynasty came into power around 1766 BCE, within this dynasty it developed fine metalwork, nobles ruled rural population, and their transportation were horses and chariots. Unfortunately, the dynasty fell in 1122 BCE when the Zhou Dynasty took over.
  • Egypt's Frist Lady Pharaoh

    Born in 1787 B.C.E., Queen Neferusobek became Egypt's first woman pharaoh during the Middle Kingdom. She ruled Egypt for almost four years, 1802 BC. Dug up momunments were discovered for her. She is the last ruler of the 12th dynasty.
  • The Babylonian Empire

    From 1792 B.C. to 1750 B.C., the Babylonian Empire came to its' end during the rise of Hammurabi. Hammurabi was well-known for creating the code of law.
  • Hammurabi's Achievements

    Within 1792 B.C., Hammurabi had code of laws created due to the lack of saftey within the village. He developed this system to unify diverse groups in his empire.
  • The Pax Romana

    From the beginning of Augustus's reign in 27 BC to the death of the last of the Good Emperors in AD 180, the Pax Romana was also known as the Roman Peace. Numerous of triats, such as government, a legal system, widespread trade, and peace amongst the area and its people. However, while continuing to build the peace, it was mostly interrupted from wars or invasions.
  • The Second Triumvirate

    In 43 BC the Second Triumvirate consisted of Caesar's adopted son, Octavian; a loyal officer, Marc Anotony; and a high priest, Lepidus. Eventually, Lepidus was pushed aside and became an outcast, Octavian and Anotony fought for power. Octavian defeated Anotony and became Rome's first emperor known as Augustus.
  • Julius Caesar

    In 50 BC, Julius Caesar was one of the most powerful men in the Roman Republic. He was the governor of the province of Gaul, which is now morden France, and the winner of numerous battles. He was also a powerful leader and a public speaker.
  • The First Triumvirate

    In 60 BC three men, Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey, and Licinius Crassus took over the Roman Republic as the First Triumvirate, or rule of three men. Later on, Crassus died, and Caesar and Pompey fought over the power. Eventually, Caesar won and took full control of the Republic. In reconizing his achievement, the Senate declared him dictator for life in 44 BC.
  • Invasion in Mesopotamia

    About 2000 B.C., Amorites warriors invaded Mesopotamia. They established a capital at Babylon along side the Euphrates River.
  • The Mycenaeans

    Around 2000 BC, the people who settled on the Greek mainland were known as Mycenaeans. Their names came from their leading city, Mycenae, which is located in southern Greece on a rocky ridge and surrounded by a protective wall. Kings from within dominated Greece around 1600 to 1100 BC
  • Harappan Culture: Culture

    From animals roaming the land to their precious skins, the people found it as a prized possesssion. Animals were a great significant part of the Harappan culture, it was mainly used in many types of artifacts and each animal had its special position.
  • The Middle Kingdom

    During the 2040 B.C., the rise of the Middle Kingdom were regained by strong pharaohs, which restored law and order. During this period, trading and transportation improved.
  • Egypt's Improvement on Trading and Transportation

    Approximately 2040 B.C., the Egyptians' trading and transportation improved from digging a canal, which started at the Nile to the Red Sea. Also, they drained numerous swamps to create new acres for farmlands.
  • Life in Egyptian Society

    Around the year of 2040 BC, the Egyptian lived their lives based on the pyramids tiers. The royalty, such as kings, queens, other upper class members stood the top. The middle class consists of merchants and artisans. Lastly, the lowers class were peasant farmers and slaves.
  • The End of Sargon's Empire

    Around 2150 B.C., Sargon's dynasty came to an end due to violence, incasions, and a famine. This is significant, because he developed the first empire.
  • Egypt's Developments (pt. 1)

    Before 2150 B.C., the Egyptians developed many efficent technologies. Such as the calendar, to keep track of floods and planting seasons. This is a beneficial development, because it kept the settlers in tact with the changes of the weather.
  • Egypt's Development (pt.2)

    Earlier than 2150 B.C., the Egyptians also developed the system of written numbers. This system counted, added, and subtracted numbers from equations. It was mainly used for collecting taxes.
  • Egypt's Developments (pt.3)

    Prior to 2150 B.C., the Egyptains used geometry to survey and reset boundaries after yearly floods.
  • Egypt's Developments (pt.4)

    Previous to 2150 B.C., the Egyptians, mainly skillful engineers and architects used mathematical knowledge for accurate measurements for contructions.
  • Egypt's Medical Field

    Earlier than 2150 B.C., Egyptian doctors knew their patient's heart rate from feeling a specific area for the pulse of his/her body. Also, they fixed broken bones with splints and used surgery to treat wounds and illnesses.
  • The End of the Old Kingdom

    Approximately 2180 B.C., Egypt splitted into smaller provinces, each with its own ruler due to te declination of the power of the pharaohs.
  • Egyptian Writings

    Before 2180 B.C., the Egyptians developed a writing system called hieroglyphics. This is one of the factors that lead to a civilization.
  • Egyptian's Writing Surface

    Before 2180 B.C., the Egyptains' invented their writing surface out of papyrus reeds. This invention made the writing more efficent for communication.
  • Sumerian's Formation of Language

    In about 2300 B.C., a map was made on a clay tablet. The Sumerians developed a writing system called, Cuneiform. The cuneiform recorded many events, atronomy, chemistry, and medicine.
  • Sargon's Appearence

    Around 2350 B.C., Sargon defeated the city-states of Sumer. He led an army from Akkad, which was north of Sumer. He help spreaded the culture and created the first empire.
  • Sumerian's Cultural Diffusion is Introduced

    By 2500 B.C., many settlers gathered together and traded products and ideas within the new cities of Sumer's city-states. Culture diffucion helped other cultures to expericence new things and improve based on what they learn from other people.
  • Science & Technology of the Sumerians

    Around 2500 B.C., Arithmetic and geometry, architectural innovations, and cuneiform were formed by the Sumerians. These techniques help the settlers to be accurate with their mesaurements. Also, the Sumerians invented the form of language.
  • Sumerian Religion

    Within the time of 2500 B.C., the Sumerians believed in many gods that controlled different forces of nature. This belief lead to the construction of different kinds of structures, such as ziggurats for priests.
  • India's Formation of a Civilization

    About the year of 2500 BC, a new civilization arose around Pakistan and part of India. There was a form of government amongst the settlers. A new language was spoken for communication of the people. Social structure and religion were formed.
  • Highest Mountains in the Indian Subcontinent

    Around 2500 BC, the highest mountains were Hindu Kush, Karakorum, and the Kimalayan ranges. These mountaines seprated the region from the Asian continent.
  • Rivers for Protection in the Indus Valley

    The Indus River flowe southwest from the Himalays to the Arabian Sea. The Ganges River is down from the Himalayas and flows eastward across northen India. These two rivers provided proctection amongst the settlers from invasions.
  • India's Climate (0,5)

    Monssons dominated India's climate. If there were no monsoons during the summer, it meant that there will be drought and will cause a crop disater.
  • Indus Valley's Environmental Challenges

    The flood from the Indus River were unpredictable for the people. The rivers often changed courses and wet/dry seasons cause by monsoons were also unpredictable. If there was little to no rain, plants would wither up and people would become hungry. If there was too much rain, floods would swept villages away.
  • Planned Cities of the Harappan Civilization

    Around 2500 BC, the people in the Indus Valley began to create new cities within the area. As the construction continued, the cities were built amongst the people. Some of the cities are Kalibangan, Monhenjo-Daro, and Harappa. Throughout history, the archaological discovered site would be addressed as Harappan civilization.
  • The Advantages of the Harappa

    Within 2500 BC, when the Harappa came to its true structure, the people built it on a mudbrick platform. It was surrounded by three and a half long wall. In an addition to having the citadel interior protecting the families within.
  • Harappan Culture: Language

    Like any another rising civilzations, the Harappan culture developed their own written. About 400 symbols were created, however it was impossible to decipher the language itself.
  • Harappan Culture: Role of Religion

    Although religion was an important aspect of the civilization, the people were well connected to their beliefs. Mainly, the priests would pray for good havests of goods and safety from floods. Throughout the times, the Hindu culture were adapted into the Indian civilization.
  • Sumerian City-states ---> Dynasties

    After 2500 B.C., Sumerian city-states were ruled by dynasties. Leadership became an important role for the Sumerians, it kept the village in place.
  • The Largest Pyramid

    In 2556 B.C., the largest pyramid was completed and rose above of the three pyramids in Giza. This achievement revealed that the previous settlers used a lot of manpower to build a large structutre for a ruler. Within the structure, it had many artifacts, drawings, and other important evidence that revealed about Ancient Egypt.
  • The Decline of Trading in the Indus Valley

    Around 2600 BC, the people discovered the use of trading in the Indus Valley. Through trading they gained new materials and resources, such as gold and silver recieved from northern Afghanistan, precious stones brought in from Persia and the Deccan Plateau, copper, lumber, and luxury goods in their daily uses. As for their trade routes, the people had ships sailing acorss the Persian Gulf. Unfortunately, as time passed the trading of goods became no more in 1800 BC.
  • The Beginning of Sumerian's Civilization

    By 300 B.C., the Sumerians built Uruk, Kish, Lagash, Umma and Ur. These five cities were city-states, each city was under the control fo their ruler. This is the beginning of a civilization.
  • The Sumerians Were Constantly at War

    Within 3000 B.C. to 2000 B.C., the Sumerians' city-states were at war numerous times. This form the role of leadership.
  • The Minoans (Greece)

    Around 3000 BC, the Minoans lived on Greece's largest island called Crete. They created an elegant civilization which brought great power in the Mediterranen world. Along the way others from different plains, including the Black Sea and Ana talia settled in Greece.
  • Wars & Leadership of Sumerians

    After 3000 B.C., wars began to devloped. Temple priests were responsible of their own government, However, they did not lead the city when wars occured but the military leaders did. Priests, kings, and landholders were the highest ranked in the social. Followed by the wealthy merchants, and ranked the lowest were the slaves.
  • Farming along the Indus Valley

    About 3200 BC, many villages began to farm for goods to trade and sell amongst the people. Growing goods was an essential for the farmers, because the exchange of money and goods brought them to an advantage.
  • The Sumerians

    Around 3300 B.C., the Sumerians were introduced. These settlers came for the good soil, but mostly their importance are their inventions. The Sumerians invented many things tools/technology.
  • Sumerians' Environmental Challenges

    Around the year of 3300 BC, the Sumerians faced many environmental challanges in the around they settled at. Such as unpredicatble flooding to no rain at all, no barriers for protection, nor natural resources.