800px usa westward expansion 1815 to 1845

Expanding the New Nation

  • Gibbons v. Ogden

    Gibbons v. Ogden
    The state of New York had authorized a monopoly on steamboat operation in its waters, an action upheld by a state chancery court, but the Supreme Court ruled that competing steamboat operators were protected by the terms of a federal license to engage in trade along a coast. The ruling reasserted that congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce.
  • Period: to

    Expanding the New Nation

  • John Quincy Adams Elected

    John Quincy Adams Elected
    The House of Representatives elects John Quincy Adams as the sixth president of the United States of America. Adams receives the votes of thirteen states, while seven states vote for Andrew Jackson and four vote for William Crawford. The election has been given to the House after none of the five candidates (Adams, Jackson, Crawford, John C. Calhoun, and Henry Clay) receive a majority of the Electoral College votes cast. Jackson does receive the largest number of popular votes cast: 152,901,
  • Erie Canal Completed

    Erie Canal Completed
    The Erie Canal joined the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes, linking the East with the West and for the first time allowing freight and settlers to easily move back and forth between the regions. The Erie Canal created international trading access on the Great Lakes and encouraged westward expansion on water.
  • Tariff of Abominations

    Tariff of Abominations
    The Tariff of 1828, also known as the Tariff of Abominations, enacted on May 19, 1828 (ch. 55, 4 Stat. 270), was a protective tariff passed by the U.S. Congress. It was labeled the "Tariff of Abominations" by its southern detractors because of the effects it had on the Antebellum southern economy.
  • Peggy Eaton Affair

    Peggy Eaton Affair
    Andrew Jackson's Kitchen CabinentMargaret O'Neale (Peggy) Eaton was the wife of John Eaton, President Andrew Jackson's Secretary of War and the focus of a Washington sex scandal that divided the Jackson administration. She married John Timberlake in 1815. Timberlake died at sea in 1828. Peggy's 1829 marriage to John Eaton, encouraged rumors that they had had an affair. The wives of other public officials ostracized Peggy Eaton. Jackson defended her, but was unable to fix the issue. All cabinent members resigned.
  • Andrew Jackson Elected

    Andrew Jackson Elected
    known as "Old Hickory"; hates the British and the Indians; war hero in the Battle of New Orleans; defeated Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend; believed in the Common Man; reduced voting restictions; 7th president; "Good Ole Boy System"; Indian Removal Act; Trail of Tears; Worcester v. Georgia
  • Webster-Hayne Debate

    Webster-Hayne Debate
    The Webster-Hayne debate in 1830 was over an 1830 bill by Samuel A. Foote to limit the sale of public lands in the west to new settlers. Daniel Webster, in a dramatic speech, showed the danger of the states' rights doctrine, which permitted each state to decide for itself which laws were unconstitutional, claiming it would lead to civil war. States' rights (South) vs. nationalism (North).
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    An act that granted the ability to negotiate land-exchange treaties to the federal government. Part of the Indian Removal policy of the government. This allowed the movement of the Indians which granted new land in the south.
  • Worcester v Georgia

    Worcester v Georgia
    A case in which the Cherokees appealed to the Supreme Court to try to stop the white infringement on their land. Because of the fact that the Cherokee Nation was seen as a "domestic dependent nation" nothing changed after the verdict of the case was made.
  • The McCormick Reaper is invented

    The McCormick Reaper is invented
    Invention of the reaper allows farmers to harvest more grain; they would start raising additional crops formarket, leading away from Jefferson's agrarian ideals
  • Tariff of 1832

    Tariff of 1832
    The Tariff of 1832 was a protectionist tariff in the United States. It was passed as a reduced tariff to remedy the conflict created by the tariff of 1828, but it was still deemed unsatisfactory by southerners and other groups hurt by high tariff rates. Southern opposition to this tariff and its predecessor, the Tariff of Abominations, caused the Nullification Crisis involving South Carolina.
  • The Black Hawk War

    The Black Hawk War
    The Sac and Fox Indians ignored the treaty that succeeded the tribal lands in Illinois to the United Sates, by reoccupying the vacant land in Illinois which caused a widespread panic among the white settlers in that state and led to the war.
  • First Democratic Convention

    First Democratic Convention
    The Democratic party held its first party convention in Baltimore, and 22 of the 23 states sent delegations. President Andrew Jackson was the party's nominee. Unlike modern conventions, where delegates chose the nominee, state legislatures picked Jackson. However, convention delegates chose his running mate, Martin Van Buren of New York. 1832 also marked the first year that Democrats adopted party rules.
  • Bank War started

    Bank War started
    A bill proposed to reestablish the Bank of the US. This bill was vetoed by Jackson, because he wanted to eliminate the Bank of the US, because it was run by people who were incompetent and he saw it as unconstitutional. This led to the election of 1832 to be centered around the future of the bank.
  • Jackson Re-elected

    Jackson Re-elected
    In 1832 Jackson was re-elected by a large majority (219 electoral votes to 49) over Henry Clay, his chief opponent. The battle raged mainly around the re-charter of the Bank of the United States.The first message of his first presidency had contained a severe reflection on the bank; and in the very height of this second campaign he vetoed the re-charter, which had been passed in the session of 1831-32. Jackson interpreted his re-election as an approval by the people of his war on the bank.
  • Nullification Crisis

    Nullification Crisis
    The Tariff of 1832, despite pleas from Southern representatives, failed to moderate the protective barriers erected in earlier legislation. The South Carolina passed an ordinance of nullification on November 24, 1832, and threatened to secede if the federal government attempted to collect those tariff duties.
  • Force Bill

    Force Bill
    he Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
  • Whig Party founded

    Whig Party founded
    Established in 1834, the Whig Party was a reaction to the authoritarian policies of Andrew Jackson. “King Andrew,” as his critics labeled him, had enraged his political opponents by his actions regarding the Bank of the United States, Native Americans, the Supreme Court and his use of presidential war powers. The term Whig was taken from English politics, the name of a faction that opposed royal tyranny.
  • Texas War for Independence

    Texas War for Independence
    Fighting and small revolts in Texas escalated from 1835 to 1836 as more Mexican troops entered the state, Americans in Texas declared independence from Mexico in 1836.
  • Van Buren Elected

    Van Buren Elected
    In May 1835 Van Buren was unanimously nominated by the Democratic convention at Baltimore. In the election Van Buren received 170 electoral votes against 73 for William Henry Harrison, his principal opponent. He announced his intention "to follow in the footsteps of his illustrious predecessor", took over all but one of Jackson's cabinet, and met with firmness the Panic of 1837, already prepared for before he took office.
  • Panic of 1837

    Panic of 1837
    When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    The forced movement of Cherokee Indians in 1838 to the land west of Mississippi River forced by the U.S. Army; it lasted 116 days and was 1,000 miles long, many Indians died along the way.
  • United States v. Armistad

    United States v. Armistad
    The decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in the United States v. Amistad was the most significant one decisions on the question of slavery before Dred Scott The case arose after the seizure of the schooner La Amistad, by a U.S. naval vessel. Aboard the ship were fifty-three Africans and two Spaniards. The Spaniards claimed that the Africans were their slaves, but the Africans said they were free. American abolitionists provided legal counsel to the Africans, hoping to secure their freedom.
  • The Dial

    The Dial
    The Dial was planned and instituted by the members of the Transcendental Club, with Margaret Fuller as the first editor. Emerson succeeded her for the magazine's last two years. The writing in The Dial was uneven, but in its four years of existence it published Fuller's “The Great Lawsuit”; prose and poetry by Emerson; Alcott's “Orphic Sayings”;and the first publications of a young friend of Emerson's, Henry David Thoreau.
  • William Henry Harrison elected President

    William Henry Harrison elected President
    President Harrison was inaugurated on the 4th of March 1841. He survived his inauguration only one month, dying on the 4th of April 1841, and being succeeded by the vice president, John Tyler. The immediate cause of his death was an attack of pneumonia.
  • John Tyler Elected President

    John Tyler Elected President
    On the 4th of April 1841, one month after inauguration as vice-president, Harrison died, and Tyler became president. He kept Harrison's cabinet until his veto of the bill for a "fiscal corporation" led to the resignation of all the members except Daniel Webster, who was bringing to a close the negotiations with Lord Ashburton for the settlement of the north-eastern boundary dispute. Because of Tyler's decision, the Whig Party and Democrats rejected him. Tyler was the "President without a Party."
  • The Dorr Rebellion

    The Dorr Rebellion
    In 1841, Rhode Island was governed by a 1663 charter which said that only property holders and their eldest sons could vote (1/2 the adult male population). Thomas Dorr led a group of rebels who wrote a new constitution and elected him governor in 1842. The state militia was called in to stop the rebellion. Dorr's Rebellion caused conservatives to realize the need for reform. A new constitution in 1843 gave almost all men the right to vote.
  • Commonwealth v Hunt

    Commonwealth v Hunt
    Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
  • Webster-Ashburton Treaty

    Webster-Ashburton Treaty
    Signed in 1842, the Treaty resolved a number of border disputes between the US and the British North American colonies. The Maine-Newbrunswick border, the Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods border, saw the 49th parallel as the border in the West. A formal end to slave trade on the high seas and shared use of the Great Lakes was established.
  • Texas Annexation

    Texas Annexation
    U.S. made Texas a state in 1845. Joint resolution - both houses of Congress supported annexation under Tyler, and he signed the bill shortly before leaving office.
  • James K. Polk Elected President

    James K. Polk Elected President
    Polk emerged as the dark horse Democratic candidate in the Election of 1844. The campaign was dominated by two expansionist issues: the annexation of Texas and the occupation of Oregon. In his inaugural address, Polk referred approvingly to the annexation, which he termed "re-annexation" based on the dubious theory that Texas had previously belonged to the United States. Polk as president surprised many by his independence and hard work.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    Bill proposed after the Mexican War that stated that neither slavery no involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any territory gained from Mexico. It was never passed through both houses but it transformed the debate of slavery.
  • The US-Mexican War begins

    The US-Mexican War begins
    Conflict after US annexation of Texas; Mexico still considered Texas its own. The US won the war. The US was granted all land from Texas to California (minus the Gadsden Purchase) in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
  • Iowa becomes a state

    Iowa becomes a state
    On December 28, 1846, Iowa became the 29th state in the Union when President James K. Polk signed Iowa's admission bill into law. Once admitted to the Union, the state's boundary issues resolved, and most of its' land purchased from the Indians. Iowa, like all other states, added a star to our great flag.
  • Wisconsin becomes a state

    Wisconsin becomes a state
    Wisconsin became a U.S. territory following the American Revolution and soon after began attracting settlers looking for work in its mining, lumber and dairy industries. It was admitted to the union as the 30th state in 1848. In the years leading up to the Civil War, Wisconsin was an important stop on the Underground Railroad, with many slaves passing through the state on their way to freedom in Canada.
  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    Ended Mexican-American War; Mexico gave up all claims to land from Texas to California for $15 million
  • Discovery of Gold in California

    Discovery of Gold in California
    Hundreds of thousands of people from around the world, mostly young men, came to California in 1849 after gold was discovered in search of instant riches.
  • Zachary Taylor Elected President

    Zachary Taylor Elected President
    New Hampshire politician chosen by the democrats as the democratic nominee in 1852. Won the presidency due in part to the division among the Whig party on the idea of abolition. Tried to keep the nation in balance and happy by avoiding controversial issues, such as slavery
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    A series of measures by Douglas that attempted to resolve the territorial and slavery controversies arising from the Mexican War. California was admitted as a free state; the territories in the west determined the issue of slavery based on popular sovereignty; the slave trade was abolished in Washington, D.C.; and The new Fugitive Slave Law was passed. At best this compromise was an armistice delaying greater conflict, than compromise.
  • Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

    Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
    Treaty between the US and the UK to build a Nicaragua canal connecting the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Negotiated by John Clayton and Sir Henry Bulwer in 1850. The canal never ended up occurring instead years later the Panama Canal took its place.
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    A part of the compromise of 1850 that Gave a new-and controversial- protection to slavery. Declared that everyone had to help catch fugitive slaves, the compromise made it illegal to harbor fugitives.
  • Milliard Filmore becomes President

    Milliard Filmore becomes President
    Succeeded Taylor after he died of a violent stomach disorder. Handsome and dignified. Supported the idea of compromise, and brought many northern Whigs into line. Said the final compromise was "in its character final and irrevocable".
  • Gasden Purchase

    Gasden Purchase
    Region of present day southern Arizona and New Mexico purchased by the USA from Mexico in a treaty signed by President Franklin Pierce. Last major addition to the territorial acquisition by the US.
  • Franklin Pierce Elected President

    Franklin Pierce Elected President
    Democratic candidate for President in 1852 and the fourteenth president of the US. He made the Gadsden Purchase, which opened the Northwest for settlement, and passed the unpopular Kansas-Nebraska Act.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    Written by Stephen Douglas. Repealed the Missouri Compromise and stated that the issue of slavery in Kansas and Nebraska would be settled by Popular sovereignty. This bill could allow states to have slavery even though it had been prohibited for thirty-four years.
  • Ostend Manifesto

    Ostend Manifesto
    Document written in 1854 stating that the US should claim Cuba from Spain and if refused the US would declare war. Was never acted upon.
  • Pottawatomie Massacre

    Pottawatomie Massacre
    John Brown was fervently anti-slavery, and had moved with his sons to Kansas to vote against it becoming a slave state. John brown gathered together a group of 6 followers and murdered 5 pro-slavery settlers. Known as the Pottawatomie Massacre.
  • Dred Scott v. Sanford

    Dred Scott v. Sanford
    Dred Scott, a slave who had lived in the free state of Illinois and the free territory of Wisconsin before moving back to the slave state of Missouri, had appealed to the Supreme Court in hopes of being granted his freedom. It was decided that Scott was property and the court could not take away property under thee 5th Amendment
  • James Buchanan becomes President

    James Buchanan becomes President
    5th President of the United States (1857-1861), he tried to maintain a balance between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions, but his moderate views angered radicals in both the North and South, and he was unable to stall the secession of South Carolina on December 20, 1860
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates

    Lincoln-Douglas Debates
    A series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas for an Illinois seat in the Senate. They led to Lincoln being elected to the Senate and this experience later propelled him to the Presidency. Lincoln opposed slavery and stephen douglass stood for popular sovereignty. Lincoln lost but issued a warning that "house divided against itself cannot stand." Debates showed Lincoln's natural humor and good personalitiy.
  • Harper's Ferry Raid

    Harper's Ferry Raid
    John Brown, with aid and encouragement from private, wealthy abolitionists, led a group of 18 followers in capturing control of an arsenal in Harper's Ferry, Virginia. Failed to inspire the planned slave uprising, and surrendered after 10 of his men were killed by militias and an army of troops led by Robert E. Lee. Brown was found guilty of treason and hung.
  • Origin of Species is published

    Origin of Species is published
    The Origin of Species was written by Charles Darwin. The Origin of Species explained Darwin's theories of natural selection.Darwin also believed higher forms of life evolved from lower forms through mutation and adaptation.
  • Comstock Lode discovered

    Comstock Lode discovered
    The Comstock Lode was the first major U.S. discovery of silver ore, located under what is now Virginia City, Nevada, on the eastern slope of Mount Davidson, a peak in the Virginia Range. After the discovery was made public in 1859, prospectors rushed to the area and scrambled to stake their claims. Mining camps soon thrived in the vicinity, which became bustling centers of fabulous wealth.
  • Works Cited

    Works Cited
    See Image for Works Cited
  • Works Cited Continued

    Works Cited Continued
    See Image for Works Cited