Events leading to Red River Rebellion

  • Transfer of Rupert's Land

    The Hudson's Bay Company transfers parts of Rupert's Land and the Red River Settlement throughout the month of January to Canada ultimately gaining 300 000 pounds and 1/20 of the fertile land. This aroused a spark of rebellion within the Métis people of the Red River Settlement for not being consulted.
  • Lieutenant-Governor William McDougall

    Lieutenant-Governor William McDougall is appointed by John A. Macdonald as the Lieutenant-Governor of The Northwest Territories which now includes the former Rupert's Land.
  • Louis Riel Stops Surveyors

    John A. Macdonald, the first prime minster of Canada, tells William McDougall to send surveyors to scope the land of the Red River Settlement. This makes the Métis uneasy and angered. Louis Riel, the future leader of the Métis, talks to the surveyors and convinces them to leave their land before a riot breaks out.
  • National Committee of the Métis

    The National Committee of the Métis, founded by Louis Riel, is formed out of fear that the surveyors of Canada would return and take their land. This council was where the Métis would decide how to protect their land.
  • William McDougall Turned Away

    Lieutenant-Governor William McDougall goes to establish his authority at the Canadian Fort, Fort Garry. He, however, finds the road to Fort Garry blocked by a band of armed Métis who would not have a Governor without being consulted first. He turns away to avoid conflict with the Métis.
  • Takeover of Fort Garry

    The Métis, soon after they turned back William McDougall, take over the Canadian Fort, Fort Garry. This Fort contains large supplies of food and ammunition. From this strategic point, they can look over and control the Settlement.
  • Canada Owns Rupert's Land

    Due to the Métis struggles, the Hudson's Bay Company postpones the transfer of Rupert's land for almost a year. Canada finally gains control of Rupert's Land which becomes part of the Northwest Territories.
  • Provisional Government

    The National Committee of the Métis set up a Provisional Government that is meant to replace the Hudson's Bay Company Rule. This allows them to negotiate their own rights and land priviledges. Louis Riel is elected as the leader during this time.
  • Double Attack on Fort Garry

    During this month, a man named John Christian Schultz, recruits a group of men to form an armed attack on Fort Garry which the Métis took over. The Métis manage to capture the attackers and imprison them but John Schultz escapes and many others are released in early February. On their second attack, a rather aggressive man named Thomas Scott accompanies them and is imprisoned along with everyone else. He will later turn out to be a subject of much controversy.
  • Métis Bill of Rights

    Métis List of Rights
    John A. MacDonald sends a man named Donald A. Smith to tell the Métis what exactly the Canadian government wished to do with their land. In return, the Métis send three delegates back to Ottawa with a document stating the rights which they wished to receive.
  • Thomas Scott's Execution

    Even when imprisoned, Thomas Scott continues to make threats to the Métis and insult their way of life. Louis Riel demands that Scott is put on trial in February and he is sentenced to death after being found guilty. Thomas Scott is executed by a firing squad on March 4, 1870.
  • Hostility Towards Riel

    News of Scott's execution by Riel reaches Ontario and Ottawa where English-speaking Protestants become outraged. They demand that Lous Riel be hanged for treason. Since Riel is trying to sustain the French culture, the French-speaking Roman Catholics support Riel. John A. MacDonald does not wish to hang Riel for fear of losing his French voters so he seeks a peaceful solution.
  • Riel in Hiding

    Louis Riel goes into hiding when a troop of militia men are after him to avenge Scott's death but they fail to kill him. John A. MacDonald arranges for Riel to leave the country but he refuses to run away. The Métis people of this time are also under threat so many escape to current- day Saskatchewan while others risk remaining at the Red River Settlement.
  • Manitoba Act

    The Red River Settlement finally joins confederation as Manitoba being the fifth province when Riel's provisional government came into agreement with the Canadian government. Many of the Métis requests were met making this a fair negotiation.
  • Louis Riel expelled from House of Commons

    Riel is elected on to the House of Commons in 1874 but is later expelled by the members on April 9, 1874. The Prime Minister of this time, Alexander MacKenzie, offers Riel amnesty if he leaves Canada for five years. This time, Riel chooses to leave and escapes on horseback.
  • Louis Riel Returns

    After being kept in an asylum for issues relating to his mental health, Riel returns to defend his people in Saskatchewan which causes another outbreak of rebellion.
  • Riel Gives Up

    Louis Riel gives himself up and is tried in Regina where he is found Guilty and is charged with death.
  • Louis Riel's Execution

    After being found guilty, Riel is hung on November 16, 1885. To this day, his execution holds much controversy and many are not pleased with the outcome. Louis Riel is thought to be a traitor, a hero, a murderer, a victim, and so on. Nevertheless, Louis Riel was one of the greatest contributors to Canadian history and for that, we recognize him.