Development of Special Education

  • Itard and Sequin

    Jean-Marc Itard and Edouard Sequin are the first known individuals to try to teach children with intellectual and developmental delays. (Kirk 7)
  • Gallaudet

    Thomas Gallaudet and others experiment with various models of communication for children with hearing loss. (Kirk 7)
  • Talking about classes for children with disabilities

    There are isolated stirrings within urban communities focused on starting classes for children with disabilities. (Kirk 7)
  • Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) founded

    founded in order to organize teachers who were working to help children with exceptionalities. (Kirk 7)
  • Few classes in urban settings

    A few classes have begun in urban settings (Kirk 7)
  • Major movement began to discover the important role that the environment plays on children with exceptionalities.

  • Public Law PL 88-164 - funds for training professionals and reserach.

    authorized funds for training professionals to work with children with special needs and for research and demonstration for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities and deafness (Kirk 34) Initiative of President John F. Kennedy.
  • PARC vs. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania PL 93-112

    court decision ruled that children with intellectual and developmental disabilities could not be excluded from school and had the right to free and appropriate public education (Kirk 38)
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

    it is illegal to deny participation in activities or programs solely because of a disability (Kirk 36)
  • Public Law PL 94-142 Education for All Handicapped Children Act signed

    assures that all handicapped children have available to them a free appropriate public education which emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs. (Kirk 34)
  • PL 94-142 Education for All Handicapped Children Act takes effect

    Public law was signed in 1975, but did not take effect until 1977 (Kirk 34)
  • PL 99-457 Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments

    allocated federal funds for states to develop plans and programs for children and their families from birth on. (Kirk 35)
  • Javits Act - named after NY Senator Jacob Javits

    provided a small sum of money to support research and demonstration programs that focused on the special needs of gifted students from economically disadvantaged circumstances.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act of 1992

    (PL 101-336) extends civil rights to include persons with disabilities. (Kirk 36)
  • No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 PL 107-110

    Major education legislation of the George W. Bush administration. It holds schools and educators responsible for bringing students to a minimum level of competency.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 2004 (IDEA)

    New name assigned to the Education of the Handicapped Act. It is the reauthorization of the original legislation designed to strengthen and improve earlier versions (Kirk 35)
  • American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

    Goal is to stimulate economic activity in a number of areas, including financial and social institutions, and education, to ensure the long-time economic health of our nation.