Culture

  • Period: Nov 1, 1500 to

    1500-2016

  • Nov 15, 1500

    First occupants 1500-1608

  • Nov 17, 1500

    Natives people and nature- Animism

    Natives people and nature- Animism
    Nature: Aboriginal peoples have great respect for their environments because they recognised it was the reason that they were able to survive. The resources they had access to were provided by the environment in which they lived, and in turn, they had great respect for nature. Linking to Animism, all things have souls, so only what they needed was taken, all that they didn’t use was returned to the environment.
  • Nov 17, 1500

    Native american values

    Native american values
    Respect for elders
    Traditions
    Freedom of actions- no written laws or private property
  • Nov 17, 1500

    Native chiefs

    Native chiefs
    In nomadic societies, hunting occupied a dominant place, the best hunter had a certain influence. An Algonquian hunter who was well spoken might be chosen as a spokesperson for the group in trading with other aboriginal communities. Even though a spokesperson had no decision-making power they were considered to be the chief. Iroquois chiefs were also required to demonstrate qualities that the group valued. in the case of the Iroquois, chief imposed decisions made as a community.
  • Nov 19, 1500

    Gift giving and social reciprocation among native peoples

    Gift giving and social reciprocation among native peoples
    The governing principle of theses trades was reciprocity: a gift has to be given in return for every gift they received, this was to maintain harmonious relationships between groups. The trades were an occasion for festivities during which great feasts were held. Each group expressed themselves in dance and song, while the chiefs exchanged gifts and rivalled each other with the eloquence of their speeches.
  • Nov 20, 1500

    Shamanism

    Shamanism
    Intermediary between Aboriginal people and the spirits whose goodwill they hoped to attract. The shaman (like a priest or medicine man) would be called upon to explain the meaning of a dream that the dreamer could not understand. Shamans were people who had special access to the world of spirits, they could communicate with spirits more frequently and clearly. Could not impose their will on the group. Communication and exchange: Oral Tradition, Song and Dance, Ceremonies/ feasts
  • Nov 21, 1500

    Aboriginal spirituality

    Aboriginal spirituality
    All spirits were immortal, meaning that they could exist outside of the bodies or objects that housed them. Because of this belief, they took special care of the animals that they killed because they believed that the reason they were able to kill the animal because the animal had given itself to them. To avoid the disfavour of these spirits, they tried to appease them in a variety of ways. Dreams and smoke were the primary methods.
  • Encounters between Europeans and FNP

    Encounters between Europeans and FNP
    The two groups had an influence on each other. The Europeans brought metal tools and utensils, wool and cotton for clothing, these were slowly integrated into the aboriginals use. Introduced new vegetables, bread, the practice of keeping orchards of fruit, and domestic animals providing meat without hunting. Bows knives and clubs were replaced by deadly rifles. Epidemics resulting from the encounter with the Europeans were however, the basis of the decimation of the Aboriginal population.
  • Catholicism

    Catholicism
    The french imported many elements of their culture, including the catholic religion. The state religion, which the French tried to impose on the Aboriginal peoples through missions, had a significant influence on the colony’s social organisation and culture.
  • French Regime- 1608-1760

  • Absolutism

    Absolutism
    The country was also under royal absolutism (ruler was said to receive his or her power directly from God and was God’s representative on earth) the political organisation in France.

    Before 1663, royal absolutism was manifested through the control the king exerted over the chartered companies to which he granted exploitation monopolies.The extent of the powers of the governor and intendant, who were appointed by the king, were also indicative of royal absolutism.
  • Everyday practices of french colonists

    Everyday practices of french colonists
    The colonists changed their French style, to a Canadian style, winter coats were worn, hats, shoes and clogs were abandoned for waterproof mocassins. The colonists also adopted Aboriginal means of travel such as snowshoes, sleds and canoes. They introduced aboriginal products such as squash, corn and maple syrup into their diets. The also discovered pipe tobacco, which was in use among the aboriginal peoples.
  • Role of the church in NF

    Role of the church in NF
    Their goal was to convert peoples (aboriginals) to the catholic faith, to instruct the population and make New France a Catholic society.
    Male+Female Religious congregations:
    Church=Power
    People were very religious, compulsory
    Not obeying=Excommunication -->not allowed to participate in church activities, therefore cannot go to heaven.
    Centre of society: controlled medicine, education, news, faith, social, conversion, land, etc.
    Money collected for church tax: tithe (priest's responsibility)
  • British Regime -1760-1867

  • Imperialism- 1760-1867

    Imperialism- 1760-1867
    An ideology that advocated the political, cultural, economic and/or military domination exerted by the Mother Country on the Colony.
    With the change of empire, the English Canadians were imperialists, meaning that they believed in Great Britain exerting its control over the colony.
  • British conquest

    British conquest
    The conquest entailed a change of empire and transformed the social makeup of the colony, to which a growing number of British people were immigrating. With them came huge changes.
  • Liberalism in the Colony from 1760 to 1840

    Liberalism in the Colony from 1760 to 1840
    A political ideology based on individuals having equal fundamental rights, including protection from the abuse of the monarch’s power.
    -Development a parliamentary system
    The press spread liberal ideas and they turned into political demands. These demands were formulated by the British - merchants, and by some Canadian professionals and merchants. In the 1830s, some Canadians adopted a radical position, which led to the rebellions of 1837-1838.
  • Demands of the Canadian Professionals and Merchants

    Demands of the Canadian Professionals and Merchants
    Towards the end of the 18th century, the expression of liberalism among the population was connected to the growth of liberal professions. Professionals were joined by some Canadians in the and demanded, through petition, the establishment of a legislative assembly.
    Liberal Canadians made their ideas public through the press. One early paper defended the separation of Church and state and denounced the Canadian nobility and clergy, who were against the establishment of a legislative assembly.
  • British respond to liberal demands

    British respond to liberal demands
    Granting of Habeas corpus. Also in 1791, with the passing of the Constitutional Act, the mother country also granted a legislative assembly to the colony.
  • First elections in Lower Canada

    First elections in Lower Canada
    A French Canadian majority was elected. Tensions between French Canadian and British representatives became quickly apparent, especially with respect to the language to be used in the House. The growing opposition led to the formation of two parties, the Parti Canadien and the British Party. These parties attacked one another not only in the house but also in newspapers, encouraging the development of the partisan press. Ex. The Quebec Mercury (British), Le Canadien (Fr. Canadian)
  • Anticlericalism

    Anticlericalism
    The opinion that the clergy shouldn’t meddle in political life, or censor cultural and intellectual life. Opposed to Ultramontanism. Taking away the power of the church. Freedom of your own decision and rules.
    -In opposition to ultramontanism.
    -Advocating the separation of church and state.
    -Promotion of a more democratic regime. Let everyone have a say.
    To combat this the number of Church representatives in the colony is increased.
  • The Church and Education

    The Church and Education
    A Denominational school system was established.
    Remained in place until the Quiet Revolution
    The Catholic Church was involved in all levels of education, elementary- university, imposed its values this way.
    Education was not compulsory, the literacy rate among the French Canadian population increased.
    Higher education remained accessible to only a minority of peoples, and girls were not admitted.
    The few schools, run by nuns, that were open to girls concentrated on domestic life.
  • Ultramontanism

    Ultramontanism
    A political and religious doctrine where the Catholic Church dominates in every way, social, cultural and political power.
    It favours increasing and enhancing the power and authority of the pope. Catholic extremist, you only listen to the bible. Church held every aspect of your life. This was also under the French Regime because the Church was the centre of society and becauce the population was very religious.
    -Advocating of absolute obedience to the Catholic religion.
  • Anticlericalism After 1840

    Anticlericalism After 1840
    Despite the growth of Ultramontanism, some continued to follow a liberal ideology. In 1844, young professionals and intellectuals in Montreal founded the Institut Canadien de Montreal, a place for intellectual discussion. It had a library where Francophones could read local and foreign newspapers and borrow books.
    This offended the church, which caused some to leave the Institut.
    Those who continued to support the Institut began to push for the separation of Church and state.
  • French Canadian Nationalism

    French Canadian Nationalism
    View that encouraged a French Canada. Desire for Canada to be autonomous and separate from Great Britain. Due to industrialisation, many French Canadians began to leave the Quebec countryside and go work in factories in the US. So, French Canadian Nationalism became survival nationalism, because they wanted to keep their culture alive. They also wanted Quebec to control its economy. This led to agriculturalism.
  • Capitalism

    Capitalism
    Private companies run the economy. It benefits the rich and the poor people stay poor.
    Industrial development required the investment of large amounts of capital as well as an abundant labour force ( to work cheaply)
    Capitalism and industrialisation left their mark on cities, which began to be divided into districts based on socioeconomics, language, identity and culture. Capitalism emerged with industrialisation, wealthy people opened factories and had people work there for a very low salary.
  • Contemporary Period- 1867- Present

  • Social reformism

    An ideology that encourages social change that fights poverty and other consequences of industrialisation.
    People wanted to combat the effects of industrialisation on society, and so this meant fighting for equality and against poverty. So, mainly women created organisations in which they wanted to involve themselves in health and education because they still saw women as having their traditional role (homemakers, educators, etc.)
  • Church conservatism

    Church conservatism
    Catholic church promoted traditionalism and values essential for the survival of French-Canadian culture. As society was evolving and becoming more liberal and secular, the Church wanted to promote a traditional way of life that would allow for the survival of French-Canadian culture. For example, they tried to close movie theatres, keep Sundays as the holy day, and ban films.
  • Feminism (1960s to the 1980s)

    Feminism (1960s to the 1980s)
    Demanded improvement of the status of women and laws changed for equality between men and women in social, legal, economic and political spheres.
    The Front de Liberation des femmes (FLF), founded 1970
    From 1970-1980s, feminism diversified and opposed other types of discrimination like discrimination on the basis of colour, sexual orientation, age, appearance or physical disability, as well as the fight against poverty, growing numbers of feminists.
  • Aboriginalism

    Aboriginalism
    -Ancestral rights and recognition of aboriginal identity through tradition culture.
    -Aboriginal rights. The fighting for the Natives to not lose their traditional values.
    1975 provincial gov't signed the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, promising to consult the Inuit and that Innus regarding everything that concerned them.
  • Aboriginal issues

    Aboriginal issues
    Large hydroelectric projects of the 1960s and 1970s required the flooding of lands necessary for maintaining the traditional way of life for some aboriginal peoples.
    OKA Crisis:
    Mohawk nation upset that a golf course wants to expand on ancestral land
    Canadian army was called to protect locals and fight against the warriors
    The mohawks were fighting for their rights and wanted the Canadian/Provincial government to acknowledge them
  • Neo liberalism (late 80s early 90s)

    Neo liberalism (late 80s early 90s)
    Laissez-faire attitude.
    The idea that the gov should not intervene in the economy, they should let it operate on its own. The Neo-liberalists believe that they needed this attitude to keep Quebec more competitive in the global market.